Who: Women pulled into the workforce that was previously occupied by white men that went off to WW2Why: A campaign to bring in women to support the war effort under What: Propaganda campaign stressing patriotic need for women to enter the workforce. Ideal: Rosie the riveter steps into the workforce when her country needed her, feminine, proud of her work. Reality: women enjoyed the jobs weren’t meant to be long term, providing a stop gap measure.Where: Industrial work factories, ship yardsWhen: 1942-1945
ERA Equal Rights Amendment
Who: Alice Paul
When: First proposed 1923
Where: It was proposed to Congress
What: Was proposed to affirm that women and men have equal rights under the law. Still not part of the US Constitution.
1932 Economy Act
Who: Married womenWhat: Women were thought of as taking men’s jobs. 1932 economy act, if there is a reduction in a workforce, the first people that should be let go are married women. This is legislation designed to fix the depression, however it didn’t. As a result, women were married women were fired in the public realm across AmericaWhen: During the depression 1932Where: Started from the top down. Federal to local and private industry
Women’s Political Council
Women's Political Council - a civic organization that was established on 1946 for AA professional women in the city of Montgomery, Alabama. WPC increased the political leverage of the black community by promoting civic involvement, increasing voter registration & lobbying city officials to address racist policies.Who: Rosa Parks bus Boycott What: Org for AA women in Montgomery, Alabama. Orchestrated a boycott of the city bus system for the refusal to hire blacks, denounced segregation on buses, and unfair bus stops in black neighborhoods. Rosa Parks arrest caused the WPC to create a city wide bus boycott.Where: AlabamaWhen: 1940s
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
What: established in 1964 as part of a voter registration project for AA. This is because AA were not allowed to attend the regular Democratic Party meetings and conventions for the opportunity to participate in the electoral process. Because to come back here to Mississippi, and then in order to try to participate, you'd be found floating down a river. You'd be found hung up in a tree. Since African Americans were not permitted to join the Mississippi Democratic Party, she co-founded the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). In 1964, the MFDP sent an alternate delegation to the Democratic National Convention comprised of 64 black and 4 white delegates. At the Convention Fannie Lou . Hamer gave a nationally-televised speech that brought public attention to the issues of sterilization abuse against black women in Mississippi and violence and discrimination faced by black people who attempted to register to vote.Where: MississippiWhen: 1964Who: Disenfranchised black in Mississippi in the Democratic Party
“Sex and Caste: a Kind of Memo”
What: "Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo," a paper, sparked debate about the experience of women in the Civil Rights Movement. A call to action, it discussed women and the problems of work, women and personal relations with men among other topics. Published in 1966.When: Written in 1965Who: a paper by Casey Hayden and Mary King
Miss America, 1968
What: Rise of the feminism and civil rights movement, pageant became target of protest and its audience began to fade. A protest of the pageant in Atlantic City using a sheep as a symbol of Miss. America. Men and Women views divided on a woman place and how they were viewed. This protest highlighted a new feminist movement in the US.Where Atlantic CityWhen: 1968. Who: organized by the New York Radical Women (N.Y.R.W.)
Who: Clarence Thomas & Anita HillWhat: Confirmation hearing for Clarence Thomas to because a Supreme Court Judge. Former assistant of his Anita Hill accused Thomas sexual harassment. She was encouraged to go forward when Thomas was nominated. Hill was subpoenaed and forced to testify. He portrayed it as a high tech lynch mob, this is about whites not wanting a black on the supreme court. Race and gender get mixed up in a really strange way. The mob was the white senators. De-raced Hill. Result: It started a national conversation about what constitutes SH. When: 1990s
Who: A need for women to get illegal abortions/radical feministsWhat: a code word for an underground project in Chicago run by radical feminists. Began in NY but spread to other cities. It was estimated that 11000 illegal abortions were performed between 1969-73. What they did was train women by doctors and teach them the proper way to abort the baby, preserve women’s health, not to kill or render them sterile. Decreased cost and increased safety. Most abortions cost 300, using Jane cost 100. It was generally safe.Where: New York, ChicagoWhen: 1969-73
Griswold v Connecticut
Who: Estelle GriswoldWhat: Estelle Griswold ran a planned parenthood. She and the medical director were giving medical advice concerning BC to married couples, and were arrested and found guilty of providing illegal contraception in Connecticut, they appealed the case. Appealed to the Supreme Court saying the law violated the constitution. The law criminalized the providing of counseling to married people for the purpose of preventing conception. Argument over the Right of marital privacy. There is nothing in the constitution that specifically says people have privacy. It had to be interpreted by the Supreme Court. This Connecticut statute null and voided it. Birth control was still not legal, but now u can talk about it.Where: Connecticut. Supreme Court CaseWhen: 1965
Sex and the Single Girl
Who: Helen Gurley BrownWhat: Helen Gurley Brown wrote Sex of a single girl. A guide book for single women. The unmarried working girl. This was a book that encouraged women as single women and the freedom. Advice she gives, telling women where to meet men, not marry them, saying work is the best place for it. Brown has revolutionary ideas. You don’t need great beauty to get a man (feminist). Like Hugh Heffner, urged readers to reject sexuality as dirty.
WWI brought more women into the workforce and, indirectly, helped the cause of women’s suffrage. Have women benefited or lost during other times of war? According to the examples you use, are wartime changes likely to be permanent ones?
· Rosie the Riveter
· Campaign to have women return jobs to returning soldiers from WW2
· Cold War and Containment effect of families
What types of contributions have women made to the major political events/changes since 1920? How likely are women to put gender before race or class in their politics? Have women’s political activities changed over time?
Clarence Thomas/Anita Hill Hearings
Pill trials in Puerto Rico
Top down legal changes as a result of contraception
What are some ways in which women have tried to gain autonomy over their own bodies? In what ways has women’s emphasis on their own bodies changed? Do you think social norms or legal changes have been more important in this process?
The Pill (Political):
Push factors of Women’s Sexuality in America (social)