test 3

  1. The term "cognition" includes
    thinking, problem solving, reasoning, and dreaming
  2. Thinking involves the manipulation of three basic forms of thought, which are
    images, concepts, and language
  3. Forming oversized images of objects in one's mind
    makes it easier to see the details of the object
  4. A generlized idea representing a category of related objects or event are called
  5. Concept formation refers to
    organizing experiences into meaningful categories
  6. Concepts that embrace a class of objects with one or more features in common ("and" concepts) are called
  7. A concept defined by the presence of at least one of several possible features is a ___ concept.
  8. An ideal model used as a prime example of a particular concept is a
  9. The dictionary definition of a wod is its ___ meaning.
  10. Emotional judements are part of the ___ meaning of a word or concept.
  11. Language must provide ___ that stand for objects and ideas.
  12. The basic speech sounds of a language are called
  13. ___ are the smallest meaningful units of speech, such as syllables or words.
  14. The complete set of rules for a language that determines how to make sounds into words and words into sentences is called
  15. The rules that determine how words in a language can be put together to make sentences are called
  16. A learned set of rules that always lead to a correct solution is known as
    an algorithim
  17. Heuristics are problem-solving strategies which
    reduce the number of alternatives
  18. After working to solve a problem for three hours, Larry has just about "giving up" until he suddenly realizes the "perfect" solution and wonders why he did not think of it sooner. Larry has just experienced
  19. Fixation is
    a barrier to problem solving
  20. The inability to see new uses for familiar objects is termed
    functional fixedness
  21. When a person of limited intelligence shows exceptional abilities in art, music, mental arithmetic, or calendar calculations, it is called
    savant syndrome
  22. If a person receives approximately the same score when taking the same test on different occasions, the test is considered
  23. If a test measures what is says it measures, then it is said to be
  24. When the same procedures are used in giving a test to all people, the test has been
  25. IQ may be defined as
    MA/CA| 100
  26. A deviation IQ represents a person's
    relative standing in a group based on mental test performance
  27. Terman showed that mentally gifted children, in general,
    are generally successful in their chosen occupation as adults
  28. Mental retardation is formally defined by deficiencies in
    IQ and adaptive behaviors
  29. People with IQs between 55 and 70 are described as
    mildly retarded
  30. Motivation is defined as
    internal mechanisms which begin, maintain, and direct behavior
  31. Desirable goals may motivate behavior in the absence of internal need. This property is known as a goal's
    incentive value
  32. Biological needs that must be met for survival are called ___ motives.
  33. Needs for activity, exploration, manipulation, and physical contact are referred to as ___ motives.
  34. Biological drives are essential because they maintain ___, a steady state of bodily equilibrium.
  35. Which area of the brain contains both the feeding center and the satiety center?
  36. Electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus will cause a rat to
    start eating
  37. If the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat's hypothalamus is destroyed, the rat will
    eat until it becomes obese
  38. A chemical called ___ is released by the intestines and causes eating to cease.
  39. When people put on weight, their fat cells release a substance called ___, which is carried in the bloodstream to the brain, where it will tell us to eat less.
  40. Which of the following tends to encourage overeating in the U.S.?
    • all of these
    • the convenience food industry enourages people to eat faster
    • restaurant foods have high sugar or fat content
    • larger food portion are served in US restaurants
  41. Yo-yo dieting
    • is characterized by all of these
    • refers to repeated weight loss and gain
    • tends to slow down the body's metabolism
    • actually makes it harder to lose weight when dieting and easier to regain weight when the dieting ends
  42. Sharon is striving to gain a sense of unity with the universe and a higher level of understanding and to become the best person possible. According to the humanistic psychologists, Sharon would be striving for
  43. Intrinsic motivation occurs when
    there is no obvious external reward for one's behavior
  44. Emotions are
    • characterized by all of these
    • linked to many basic adaptive behaviors that aid survival
    • characterized by physiological arousal
    • characterized by changes in facial expression, gestures, and posture
  45. Which element of emotion is the private, subjective experiences of having an emotion?
    emotional feelings
  46. Preparation of the body for fighting or fleeing is the function of the
    sympathetic nervous system
  47. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    the parasympathetic system reverses the responses stimulated by the sympathetic system
  48. Darwin considered human emotional expression
    an adaptive means of communicating one's feeling to others
  49. An ___ smile involves not only the mouth, but also the small muscles around the eyes.
  50. The-cross cultural research conducted by Paul Ekman has revealed that
    some expressions, such as happiness and fear, are universal
  51. Which theory holds that we are afraid because we run, or are angry because we strike?
  52. Which theory claims that emotions are organized in the brain and that emotional feelings and bodily expressions occur simultaneously?
    the Cannon-Bard theory
  53. Schachter's cognitive theory of emotion emphasizes
    the combined effects of physical arousal and emotional labels
  54. According to psychologists who support the feedback hypothesis of emotion, if you want to be happy, you should
Card Set
test 3
multiple choice