The conversion of a physical stimulus into a neural impulse involves
The process of receiving and representing sensory stimuli is
The process by which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as
The minimum amount of energy needed for a sensation to occur is called
the absolute threshold
The amount of change necessary in a given stimulus to produce "a just noticeable difference"(difference threshold) is a constant proportion of the original stimulus. This defines
occur when we can detect the change in the intensity of a stimulus
Hue refers to the
basic color categories
The function of the lens is to
focus an image on the retina
Within one's eye, the light-sensitive cells are called ____ and are located in the ___.
The rods of the retina
function best in dim light
The part of the eye where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the
Brain cells that analyze incoming sensory information into lines, angles, shading, and movement are called
Trichromatic theory states that there are three kinds of ___ in the eye.
Which theory of color vision is correct?
both opponent-process and thrichromatic
The fact that we see negative afterimages supports which theory of color vision?
Frequency is to ___ as amplitude is to ____.
In the auditory system, the first anatomical structure to respond to the sound wave is
The stapes is attached to a membrane on the cochlea called the ___, which moves back and forth, making waves in the fluid inside the cochlea.
Sound vibrations make waves in the fluid inside the cochlea. These waves in the fluid are detected by the ___ within the cochlea
The ___ theory explains that hearing high or low tones depends upon which area of the cochlea is most strongly timulated
Which of the following are the chemical senses?
smell and taste
The vestibular sense helps keep us from
Which of the following is NOT a skin sensation?
The tendency to group together objects that are the same size, shape, color, or form is known as
To be conscious means
that one is aware
External markers like ___ help set 24-hour sleep rhythms.
light and darkness
EEG records indicate that during sleep the brain
changes its pattern of activity
Which stage of sleep typically has sleep spindles?
Stage 3 NREM and Stage 4 NREM
show delta waves
After spending some time in Stage 4, the sleeper
returns to Stage 3, then Stage 2, then Stage 1
REM is the acronym that stands for
rapid eye movement
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of dream sleep?
increased muscle tension and movement
A person suffering from insomnia has a sleep problem characterized by
difficulty going and staying asleep
Sleepwalking and night terrors occur during
Stage 4 NREM
Narcolepsy refers to
sudden sleep attacks
Sleep apnea refers to
a breathing problem during sleep
In the textbook, learning is defined as a
relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to experience
Repeated presentation of a US results in a reduction in the strength of the UR. This is the definition of
Which type of conditioning did Ivan Pavlov, the Russian physiologist who studied the digestion process, in dogs, formulate?
The essence of classical conditioning is behavior that is controlled by
a stimulus/stimulus pairing
In classical conditioning, conditioned responses are
Bartholomew teases his two-year old brother Elliott by blowing up red balloons and bursting them in from of the child resulting in a loud noise that makes Elliot cry. Now whenever Elliott sees a red balloon he becomes frightened. In this situation the loud noise is the
Following conditioning, repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus will lead to a reduction and eventually a disappearance of the conditioned response. The phenomenon is known as
Harold overcame his fear of water that was elicited by two bullies held his head under water at summer camp. Although he swam the rest of the season without noticeable fear, on the first day of swimming next summer, he began to cry and said he was scared to swim. What had occurred?
____ involves pairing a neutral stimulus with a previously established conditioned stimulus.
Higher order conditioning
Rodney had conditioned Stewart to salivate when a red light is presented. To which of the following colors of light is Stewart most likely to salivate?
John Watson conditioned a fear response in little Albert by pairing a loud noise with a white rat. What was the conditioned stimulus?
the white rat
Phobias are at least partially the result of
Edward Thorndike, using cats in a puzzlebox, developed
the law of effect
B.F. Skinner believed that the main cause of behavior was our
In operant conditioning, the response comes:
before the consequence
A stimulus or event that makes another stimulus either more or less reinforcing (like food deprivation makes food a more powerful reinforcer); is call an
According to the handout; an energy change (stimulus) that strengthens behavior because that response has been reinforced in its presence, but not in its absence is known as
A stimulus change that strengthens the response it follows is called
A schedule of reinforcement where every 10th response is reinforce is called a
fixed ratio 10
A schedule of reinforcement where the first response after 10 seconds passes is reinforced is called a
fixed interval 10 sec
Filbert finishes his dinner and his mother puts a Clay Aiken CD on the stereo(doesn't like). His mother says that she will turn off the CD after Filbert cleans his room. He cleans his room and she turns off the CD. In the future Filbert starts to clean his room after dinner. Filbert behavior is being
Zachary is running an experiment. He states: "In this experiment the food deprived rat presses the lever because the rat is reinforced with food.: What is wrong with Zachary's statement?
Behaviors are reinforced not the organism (rat)
According to the test: Which of the following is NOT a way to make punishment more effective
reinforce the behavior you are punishing
A stimulus that can strengthen behaviors without a prior learning history is a
A stimulus that can weaken behaviors because it has been paired with a punisher is a
Generalization is a phenomenon that can be seen in operant and classical conditioning
Bernard blinks when he hears a bell ring because, in the past, the bell had been repeatedly paired with a puff of air to his eyes.
The doctor strikes your patellar tendon (in the knee) with a small rubber hammer and your leg kicks forward
Rafael does his laundry before dinner and earns a trip to the coffee shop for doing do
Simon does not try to mild the bull because two times he tried he got kicked in the head
Reinforcing successive approximation of the desired response is called
The first lever press that occurs after 30 seconds passes is reinforced. This is an example of which of the following schedules of reinforcement
A response will eventually disappear if reinforcement is withheld. The procedure is called
____ memory is our memory for information coming through the senses
___ memory is also known as working memory and it has a limited duration and capacity
___ memory is relatively permanent an virtually unlimited