test 2

  1. The conversion of a physical stimulus into a neural impulse involves
  2. The process of  receiving  and representing sensory stimuli is
  3. The process by which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as
  4. The minimum amount of energy needed for a sensation to occur is called
    the absolute threshold
  5. The amount of change necessary in a given stimulus to produce "a just noticeable difference"(difference threshold) is a constant proportion of the original stimulus. This defines
    Weber's Law
  6. Difference thresholds
    occur when we can detect the change in the intensity of a stimulus
  7. Hue refers to the
    basic color categories
  8. The function of the lens is to
    focus an image on the retina
  9. Within one's eye, the light-sensitive cells are called ____ and are located in the ___.
    photoreceptors; retina
  10. The rods of the retina
    function best in dim light
  11. The part of the eye where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the
    blind spot
  12. Brain cells that analyze incoming sensory information into lines, angles, shading, and movement are called
    feature detectors
  13. Trichromatic theory states that there are three kinds of ___ in the eye.
  14. Which theory of color vision is correct?
    both opponent-process and thrichromatic
  15. The fact that we see negative afterimages supports which theory of color vision?
  16. Frequency is to ___ as amplitude is to ____.
    pitch; loudness
  17. In the auditory system, the first anatomical structure to respond to the sound wave is
    the eardrum
  18. The stapes is attached to a membrane on the cochlea called the ___, which moves back and forth, making waves in the fluid inside the cochlea.
    oval widow
  19. Sound vibrations make waves in the fluid inside the cochlea. These waves in the fluid are detected by the ___ within the cochlea
    hair cells
  20. The ___ theory explains that hearing high or low tones depends upon which area of the cochlea is most strongly timulated
  21. Which of the following are the chemical senses?
    smell and taste
  22. The vestibular sense helps keep us from
    falling over
  23. Which of the following is NOT a skin sensation?
  24. The tendency to group together objects that are the same size, shape, color, or form is known as
  25. To be conscious means
    that one is aware
  26. External markers like ___ help set 24-hour sleep rhythms.
    light and darkness
  27. EEG records indicate that during sleep the brain
    changes its pattern of activity
  28. Which stage of sleep typically has sleep spindles?
  29. Stage 3 NREM and Stage 4 NREM
    show delta waves
  30. After spending some time in Stage 4, the sleeper
    returns to Stage 3, then Stage 2, then Stage 1
  31. REM is the acronym that stands for
    rapid eye movement
  32. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of dream sleep?
    increased muscle tension and movement
  33. A person suffering from insomnia has a sleep problem characterized by
    difficulty going and staying asleep
  34. Sleepwalking and night terrors occur during
    Stage 4 NREM
  35. Narcolepsy refers to
    sudden sleep attacks
  36. Sleep apnea refers to
    a breathing problem during sleep
  37. In the textbook, learning is defined as a
    relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to experience
  38. Repeated presentation of a US results in a reduction in the strength of the UR. This is the definition of
  39. Which type of conditioning did Ivan Pavlov, the Russian physiologist who studied the digestion process, in dogs, formulate?
    classical conditioning
  40. The essence of classical conditioning is behavior that is controlled by
    a stimulus/stimulus pairing
  41. In classical conditioning, conditioned responses are
  42. Bartholomew teases his two-year old brother Elliott by blowing up red balloons and bursting them in from of the child resulting in a loud noise that makes Elliot cry. Now whenever Elliott sees a red balloon he becomes frightened. In this situation the loud noise is the
    unconditioned stimulus
  43. Following conditioning, repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus will lead to a reduction and eventually a disappearance of the conditioned response. The phenomenon is known as
  44. Harold overcame his fear of water that was elicited by two bullies held his head under water at summer camp. Although he swam the rest of the season without noticeable fear, on the first day of swimming next summer, he began to cry and said he was scared to swim. What had occurred?
    spontaneous recovery
  45. ____ involves pairing a neutral stimulus with a previously established conditioned stimulus.
    Higher order conditioning
  46. Rodney had conditioned Stewart to salivate when a red light is presented. To which of the following colors of light is Stewart most likely to salivate?
  47. John Watson conditioned a fear response in little Albert by pairing a loud noise with a white rat. What was the conditioned stimulus?
    the white rat
  48. Phobias are at least partially the result of
    classical conditoning
  49. Edward Thorndike, using cats in a puzzlebox, developed
    the law of effect
  50. B.F. Skinner believed that the main cause of behavior was our
  51. In operant conditioning, the response comes:
    before the consequence
  52. A stimulus or event that makes another stimulus either more or less reinforcing (like food deprivation makes food a more powerful reinforcer); is call an
    establishing operation
  53. According to the handout; an energy change (stimulus) that strengthens behavior because that response has been reinforced in its presence, but not in its absence is known as
    discriminative stimulus
  54. A stimulus change that strengthens the response it follows is called
    a reinforcer
  55. A schedule of reinforcement where every 10th response is reinforce is called a
    fixed ratio 10
  56. A schedule of reinforcement where the first response after 10 seconds passes is reinforced is called a
    fixed interval 10 sec
  57. Filbert finishes his dinner and his mother puts a Clay Aiken CD on  the stereo(doesn't like). His mother says that she will turn off the CD after Filbert cleans his room. He cleans his room and she turns off the CD. In the future Filbert starts to clean his room after dinner. Filbert behavior is being
    negatively reinforced
  58. Zachary is running an experiment. He states: "In this experiment the food deprived rat presses the lever because the rat is reinforced with food.: What is wrong with Zachary's statement?
    Behaviors are reinforced not the organism (rat)
  59. According to the test: Which of the following is NOT a way to make punishment more effective
    reinforce the behavior you are punishing
  60. A stimulus that can strengthen behaviors without a prior learning history is a
    primary reinforcer
  61. A stimulus that can weaken behaviors because it has been paired with a punisher is a
    conditioned punisher
  62. Generalization is a phenomenon that can be seen in operant and classical conditioning
  63. Bernard blinks when he hears a bell ring because, in the past, the bell had been repeatedly paired with a puff of air to his eyes.
    classical conditioning
  64. The doctor strikes your patellar tendon (in the knee) with a small rubber hammer and your leg kicks forward
    unlearned reflex
  65. Rafael does his laundry before dinner and earns a trip to the coffee shop for doing do
    operant conditoning
  66. Simon does not try to mild the bull because two times he tried he got kicked in the head
    operant conditoning
  67. Reinforcing successive approximation of the desired response is called
  68. The first lever press that occurs after 30 seconds passes is reinforced. This is an example of which of the following schedules of reinforcement
    fixed interval
  69. A response will eventually disappear if reinforcement is withheld. The procedure is called
  70. ____ memory is our memory for information coming through the senses
  71. ___ memory is also known as working memory and it has a limited duration and capacity
    short term
  72. ___ memory is relatively permanent an virtually unlimited
    long term
Card Set
test 2
multiple choice