1. Density
    : the number of people per square km, population / area km squared. 
  2. Distribution
    the pattern of where people are located in a country. 
  3. Ecumene: the inhibited area of a country-our ecumene has been described as an “archipelago,” In other words, as a chain of islands or clusters of population. 
     the inhibited area of a country-our ecumene has been described as an “archipelago,” In other words, as a chain of islands or clusters of population. 
  4. Urban
    communities with a population over 1000
  5. Rural: 
    communities with a population 1000 and under
  6. Urbanization:
     process of changing from rural to urban
  7. Urban hierarchy: 
    A system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority. 
  8. Threshold: 
    In geography, a threshold population is the minimum number of people necessary before a particular good or service can be provided in an area. 
  9. Low order goods/services:
     Goods and services with low range and a low threshold population like daily newspaper, bread. The goods are often convenience goods. 
  10. Middle order goods/services:
     Goods and services with a middle range and middle threshold population such as items you buy weekly or monthly. They are services or goods we only need from time to time, like clothing stores, office stores, hair salons, doctor’s offices.
  11. High order goods and services: 
    require a large threshold population, are expensive and purchased infrequently, such as a hospital that provides specialized treatment, furniture, electronic goods, and financial expertise. These goods are usually shopping goods. 
  12. Multiplier effect:
     for every basic job created, 3 more non basic are created as a result. Institutional land use: land used for something run by society or by public authorities, like schools, hospitals, government offices, places of worship. 10% of a city is taken up by institutional land. 
  13. Inter-urban transportation: 
    • ransportation between cities
    • E.G. greyhound
  14. Intra-urban transportation:
    •  transportation within cities
    • grand river transit
  15. Containerization: 
    Using standard (all the same) sized aluminum containers to share both bulk and individual goods.
  16. Aboriginal: 
    the first people in any land
  17. First Nations:
     the aboriginal people of Canada
  18. Eskimo
    : eaters of raw meat
  19. Inuit:
     the people
  20. Netsilik:
     the people of the seal
  21. Assimilation: 
    to make a nation lose their culture and adapt to a culture that is not originally theirs. 
  22. Comprehensive treaty: 
    claim available to first nations who never signed treaties in the past that deals with many issues, including land ownership, self-government, ownership and control of resources, hunting/fishing/trapping rights, and financial compensations. Step one in the treaty making process.
  23. Specific Claim
    First Nation’s claim based on a belief that the government didn’t follow everything they said they would. Step 2 in the treaty making process.
  24. Immigration
    • to come to a country of which one is not a native, usually forpermanent 
    • residence. 
  25. Emigration
    to leave one country to settle in another.
  26. Cultural Baggage:
    language, customs, tradition, food, religion, etc. That new immigrates bring with them.
  27. Ethnic launching pad:
     a neighbourhood/market where new immigrants can access goods and services they would of had in their homelands. 
  28. Push factors: 
    reasons that cause people to leave their country, like war, absence of human rights, poor economic and educational opportunities, religion persecution, terrorism, natural disaster
  29. Pull factors:
     factors that draw people to a country, like lower taxes, job opportunities.
  30. Points system: 
    a system used to assess applicants' eligibility for living in a country, based on points 
  31. Birth Rate: 
    number of births per 1000 people
  32. Death Rate: 
    number of deaths per 1000 people
  33. Immigration rate:
    number of new Canadians who have emigrated here from another country per 1000 people of Canada’s population
  34. Emigration rate:
    population in one year who emigrated per 1000 people
  35. Population growth rate: 
    • Measurement  that combines both natural increase and net migration to calculate the overall growth of a countrys population. 
    • (birth rate-death rate) + (immigration rate-emigration rate) 
  36. natural increase rate: 
    Difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country. (Birth rate - death rate) ( If the death rate is higher than the birth rate, it becomes natural decrease rate)
  37. Net migration rate:  
    Difference between immigrating to a country and people emmigrating from the same country ( immigration rate - emmigration rate) 
  38. Dependency load: 
    Portion of the population that is not in the work force; people under 14 and over 65
  39. Rule of 70:
     making an estimate of the doubling time of the population by dividing 70 (it’s the life expectancy or a person) by the population growth rate and it gives you an estimate of the doubling time. 
  40. Baby boom: 
    This occurred from 1946- 1961 due to good economical times. This surge in births increased the dependency load and there was great need for providing services such as elementary schools. 
  41. Population Pyramids

    Stable population: 

    Decreasing Population : 

    Increasing population:
    Stable population: Has a relatively even distribution across the age groups, tapering towards upper age groups. The population is neither increasing nor decreasing

    Decreasing Population : Has a wide middle and top with a large % of the population beyond child bearing years. It is distinguished by a narrow base indicating a low birth rate 

    Increasing population: Has a wide base indicating high birth rate, more than 50% of population is under 50 years of age with a large % in child bearing years.
  42. Settlement Patterns: 
    Distribution of homes towns, villages farms and cities in an area
  43. Population Distribution: 
    Pattern showing where people live in an area. 
  44. Rural settlement: 
     Permanent settlement of people in an area that is well removed from large urban centres
  45. Tributary
    : A small stream or river that joins a large stream or river
Card Set
test 3