Psychology - abnormalities - studies

  1. Deviation from social norms - cultural relativity - Reported that in Britain black afro-caribbean immigrants were between 2 and 7 times more likely to be diagnosed with scizophrenia than white people
    Cochrane (1983)
  2. Who came up with the definition of deviation from ideal mental health
    Jahoda (1958)
  3. Limitation of deviation from ideal mental health - Argues that using the above criteria would mean that most people would be considered abnormal becuase it would be difficult to maintain all six criteria all of the time as we go through times of stress
    Mackay (1978)
  4. Who came up with the definition of failure to function adequately
    Rosenhan & Seligman (1989)
  5. Physical causes of mental disorders - infection - Found 14% of cases linked to exposure to the flu virus in the womb in the first 3 months of pregnancy
    Brown et al (2004)
  6. Physical causes of mental disorders - biochemisty - Link between schizophrenia and excess levels of dopamine and depression linked with decrease availability of serotonin - supported by PET scans which measures the action of neurotransmitters
    Mann et al (1996)
  7. Physical causes of mental disorders - genetic inheritance - Found the concordance rate of schizophrenia in non-identical twins was 9% but for identical twins it rose to 42%
    Gottesman & Shields (1972)
  8. Physical causes of mental disorders - genetic inheritance - Found that first degree relatives of schizophrenia were 18x more likely to develop the illness than a matched control group
    Kendler et al (1985)
  9. Physical causes of mental disorders - genetic inheritance - Found in 13 families where there was a case of schizophenia, these families contained multiple cases in 3 or more generations. They took DNA samples and found strong evidence that certain chromosomes are linked to schizophrenia and passed on through generations
    Gurling et al (2001)
  10. Evaluation of drug therapies - reviewed 38 studies of antidepressants and found patients who received placebos fared almost as well as those getting real drugs, suggesting the beneficial effects of drugs may be caused largely by the placebo effect
    Kirsch (2002)
  11. Evaluation of drug therapies - Compared use of tricyclics (antidepressants) and placebos in 28 studies and found a success rate of 35% for placebos and 60% for tricyclics. So even though there was a placebo effect, this was far less effective than the tricyclics.
    Mulrow (2000)
  12. Evaluation of drug treatments - Found that relapse rates were lower for schizophrenics treated with antipsychotic drugs, when compared to placebo's as a treatment
    WHO (2001)
  13. Evaluation of ECT - states that 60-70% of ECT patients improve after treatment
    Comer (2002)
  14. Evaluation of ECT - found 84% of patients relapsed withing six months of having ECT
    Sackheim (2001)
  15. Evaluation of ECT - Reviewed patient surveys and only around half of ECT patients believe they were given enough inforomation before their treatment
    Rose (2005)
  16. Psychoanalysis - Anna O
    Freud & Breuer (1896) - symptoms disappeared after free assosiationn and catharsis
  17. Evaluation of psychoanalysis - Following psychoanalysis, patients were better off than 80% of untreated patients
    Lambert & Bergin (1994)
  18. Evaluation of psychoanalysis - Reviewed 24 studies into the effectiveness of psychoanalysis and found 23 of those studies suggested psychoanalysis was as effective as the other standard therapies
    Leichsenring & Leibing (2007)
  19. Evaluation of psychoanalysis - Has criticised the therapeutic relationship in psychoanalysis as one where all the power liew with the analyst, and they may abuse their power. Client is expected to accept what the analyst says
    Masson (1988)
  20. Classical conditioning
    Pavlov (1927)
  21. Little Albert and white rat experiment
    Watson and Rayner (1920)
  22. Operant conditioning
    Skinner (1974)
  23. Modelling (social learning)
    Bandura (1973)
  24. Modelling - Showed that monkeys could develop a snake phobia by simply observing another monkey being fearful in the presence of a snake
    Mineka et al (1984)
  25. Little Peter and fear of white rabbit experiment
    Jones (1924)
  26. Evalution of little Peter experiment - suggests that its the exposure to the feared stimulus, not the pleasant stimulus that is most important feature of SD. Design of study makes it impossible to tell which feature had greatest effect
    Marks (1987)
  27. SD - managing dog phobia
    Newman and Adams (2004)
  28. Flooding - Carried out an experiment which demonstrated flooding. He took a girl who was scared of cars and drove her around for hours. Initially the girl was hysterical but she eventually calmed down when she realised that she was safe.
    Wolpe (1973)
  29. Evaluation of SD:
    SD treatment group: 87% patients free of panic
    Drug treatment group: 50% free of panic
    Placebo group: 36% free of panic
  30. Evaluation of behavioural therapies - flooding was significantly more effective at treating phobias than SD, but was so traumatic that frequently walked out or didn't return
  31. Evaluation of behavioural therapies - aversion therapy - found 81% of alcoholics abstained at 6 months, with 71% still abstinent at 20 months
    Frawley and Smith
  32. Cognitive approach - cognitive triad - model of depression
    Beck (1987)
  33. ABC model
    Activating event, Beliefs and Consequences
    Ellis (1997)
  34. Evaluation of cognitive approach - longitudinal study on uni students, they were assessed at start of first yr to identify those who showed signs of negative thinking. After 2.5 years it showed 17% of high risk group and 1% of low risk group developed depression
    Barlow and Durand (1999)
  35. Evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy - reviewed 16 meta-analyses. Concluded that CBT was very effective for treating depression, anxiety and panic disorders and moderately effective for marital distress and anger
    Butler (2006)
  36. Evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy - found that at a 15 month follow-up more patients were acstaining from alcohol after psychoanalysis than after CBT
    Sandahl (1958)
  37. Evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy - relapse rates for depression:
    Drugs + CBT = 25%
    Drugs + standard clinical management = 80%
    Fava et al (1998)
Card Set
Psychology - abnormalities - studies
Abnormalities - key studies