1. Type and degree of HL for outer ear disorders
    Conductive mild-moderate
  2. What disorders are low set ear associated with
    • -Noonan’s syndrome
    • -Trisomy 18
  3. What is Lop Ear
    • -OE disorder
    • -Congenital
    • -Varying degree of HL
    • -Collapsing canals
    • -Otoplasty
  4. What is otoplasty
    plastic surgery to improve the appearance of external ear
  5. Microtia
    • -OE disorder
    • -Abscence of pinna, tragus and auditory canal
    • -Deformities of ME and TM
    • -Conductive HL
  6. Atresia
    • -OE disorder
    • -Congenital, burns, trauma
    • -External ear canal not formed
    • -Common in Syndromes (Treacher Collins)
    • -More common in males
    • -ME bone abnormalities, IE OK
    • -Can occur with micotia
  7. What is the treatment for atresia
    Bony plate seperating external canal and middle ear must be drilled out.
  8. Stenosis
    • -OE disorder
    • -Narrowing of ear canal
    • -No HL, easily clogged by wax
  9. What is treatment for stenosis?
    Canalplasty (widen the ear canal)
  10. Foreign Bodies
    • -OE disorder
    • -Can cause HL if blocking ear canal
  11. External Otitis
    • -OE disorder
    • -Water with bacteria fungus trapped in canal
    • -Symptoms: drainage, itchy, sensitive to touch, feels blocked
  12. Collapsing ear canal
    • -OE disorder
    • -Narrowing of the external canal that occurs with pressure compresses the pinna against the side of the head.
    • -Does not need medical intervention
    • -1/3 of people 65+ have this
    • -Commin in really large ears
  13. What type of HL and tympannogram does excessive ear wax cause?
    • -Mild-moderate CHL
    • -Type A if canal is not completely blocked, Type B if canal is completely blocked
  14. What is the average AC shift for OE disorders?
    10-15 dB
  15. What is the speech discrim for OE disorders?
  16. What type of
    1. Tympanogram
    3. OAE
    would you see with an OE disorder?
    • 1. WNL
    • 2. Present
    • 3. Present
  17. What are the most common tumors for OE disorder?
    Basal cell
  18. What can cause a perforation?
    • -Exessive pressure build-up during ME disorder
    • -Firecrackers
    • -Trauma from pointed objects
  19. Myringoplasty
    surgical repair of TM
  20. 1. Type of HL with Perf?
    2. OAE results
    3. Tympanogram
    • 1. CHL
    • 2. absent
    • 3. type b (large volume)
  21. What is the most common cause of HL in children under 3?
    Otitis Media
  22. Acute Otitis Media
    Fluid in ME with signs of infection (bulging TM, drainage, pain, perf)
  23. Otitis Media with effusion
    Fluid in ME without signs of infection
  24. Mastoiditis
    invasion of fluid in mastoid bone during otitis media
  25. What are the symptoms of otitis media with effusion?
    fever, ear pain, HL, irritability, pulling on ear, poor sleep, drainage
  26. What are the risk factors of otitis media with effusion
    Cleft pallate, second hand smoke, formula vs breast milk, upper respiratory infections, day care, ethnic groups
  27. Otitis Media with Effusion
    1. Type and Degree HL
    2. Tympanogram
    3. OAE
    4. I-V ABR
    5. V latency
    • 1. Mild to Moderate, normal BC abnormal AC
    • 2. Type B
    • 3. Absent
    • 4. Normal
    • 5. May be delayed
  28. What is Politzerization?
    Blowing air into nostril with syringe, blocking other and swallowing which forces air into TM and ME and causes it to pop.
  29. Valsalva Maneuver
    Plugging nose and blowing air into ears (should not be done if there is nasal discharge)
  30. Cholesteatoma
    Non malignant tumor in ME space.  Skin has entered ME space.  Small sac-like tumors made of proteins, fats, and tissues.  As it grows, damage ME bones
  31. Cholesteatoma etiologies?
    • Perf- skin enters ME
    • Retraction of TM
  32. Symptoms of Cholesteotoma
    HL, drainage with foul odor, ear pressure, dizziness, facial weakness
  33. What happens if cholesteatoma goes untreated?
    Spreads to the IE or the brain
  34. What the the audiometric results with cholesteatoma (type, degree HL, tympanogram, reflexes, OAE, I-V ABR, Wave V latency)
    • Mild- Moderately Severe CHL
    • Type B
    • Reflexes and OAE absent
    • I-V normal and wave V latency delayed
  35. Cholesteatoma interventions
    Mastoidectomy, keep ear dry, take antibiotics
  36. What is Bell's Plasy
    Damage to facial nerve causing unilateral facial paralysis
  37. Possible etiologies of Bell's Palsy
    Viral/Bacterial infections, tumor, swelling, injury
  38. Symptoms of Bell's Palsy
    • -Twitching, weakness or numbness on one side of the face
    • -Not a disease and rarely causes HL alone
    • -Changes in taste
  39. What is the intervention for Bell's Palsy
    Steroids, Eye patch at night to keep eye from drying out, surgical intervention for facial paralysis
  40. What is Otosclerosis?
    • Abnormal bone growth in ME around footplate of stapes, which prevents the ossicular chain from moving properly (footplate of stapes becomes "fixed" at oval window)
    • Progressive, genetic, more common in females
  41. What are the symptoms of otosclerosis?
    Gradual HL, Tinnitus, dizziness, paracus willisi
  42. Medical intervention for Otosclerosis
    • Sodium flouride treatment
    • Stapedectomy
    • BAHA implanted device
  43. Auiometric Results with otosclerosis
    • Mild-moderattely severe CHL
    • Type B tympanogram
    • Reflexes and OAE absent
    • I-V normal, Wave V delayed
  44. What are the 3 most common causes of SNHL
    Noise, Presbycusis, Menieres Diseasse
  45. Where is the site of noise induced HL
    Basal end Outer Hair Cells
  46. Audiometric Results for noise induced hearing loss
  47. -Otoscopy: Normal
    • -Tympanometry:  Normal
    • -Acoustic Reflexes: variable depending on degree of HL (Absent in severe/profound HL ..elevated in moderate HL)
    • -Maximal HL between 3000-6000 Hz – “Noise Notch”
  48. Symptoms of noise induced hearing loss
    tinnitus, difficulty understanding in noise, difficulty understanding speech
  49. What noise is loud enough to cause a noise induced HL?
  50. Highest sound level over a period of time
    max sound level
  51. average sound over a peroid of time
    average sound level
  52. Noise Dose
    a percentage of the daily maximum permissible exposure
  53. What is Presbycusis?
    SNHL associated with aging (damage to cochlea hair cells)
  54. Sensory Presbycusis
    Loss of IHC and OHC SNHL in high range
  55. Neural Presbycusis
    Loss of 50% of chochlear neurons, poorer than expected Word recognition
  56. Stria Presbycusis
    atrophy of stria vascularis, affects production of endolymph
  57. Autoimmune inner ear disease
    inflammatory condition of the inner ear. 
  58. Menieres Disease
    Sudden attacks of vertigo, tinnitus, vommiting, and unilateral SNHL  (overproductoin of endolymph)
  59. Treatment for Meieres
    Limit fluid retention, improve blood flow,
  60. What are the audiometric results for Menieres?
    • -Type A
    • -Acoustic Reflexes: variable depends on degree of HL OAE’s absent
    • -ABR: I-V normal ; wave V correlated with degree of HL
  61. What is Acoustic Neuroma?
    CANS disorder, slow growing benign tumor.
  62. What sizes are small medium and large acoustic neuroma
    • Small- less than 1.5 cm
    • Medium- 1.5-2.5 cm
    • Large- 2.5 cm
  63. Acoustic Neuroma Symptoms
    • Progressive unilateral SNHL
    • Tinnitus, dizziness, pressure in ear,
  64. Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma
    • Surgical Removal
    • Radiation
  65. Auditory Neuropathy
    • Neural HL
    • Normal Hair Cell function, abnormal neural function
  66. Auditory Neuropathy adometric results
    • Fail ABR
    • Pass OAE
    • Normal MRI
Card Set
Final Exam