What are some reasons we would hand raise puppies?
- mother's milk is not available to puppies, colostrum or regular
- weak puppy
- insufficient milk
What are some reasons why the mother would have insufficient milk for her babies?
- surgery on mother
- illness (mastitis, metritis)
- large litter and not enough for everyone
What kind of bedding should we provide for the puppy?
- soft absorbent material
- soak up urine
- change or wash often
- provide good footing
- baby diapers, towels
Why do puppies that are being hand raised need to be isolated?
helps prevent exposure to infection since they are colostrums deprived
How do we measure the temperature of where the puppy is being kept?
measure temperature by placing thermometer on the floor of the puppy's box
What is thermoregulation?
ability to regulate one's own body temperature
When is a puppy about to thermoregulate?
2 1/2 - 3 weeks old
How should we have the heat source arranged in the puppy's area?
arrange so that the puppy can move towards or away from the heat
What can we use to keep the puppies warm?
- heating pads
- hot water bottles
- heat lamps
Which types of heating pads are the best to use?
- least likely to burn the patient
What kind of water bottles can we use for heat?
empty plastic milk jugs can be used - fill with hot water, cover with towel
What can a heat source do to a puppy's hair or skin? What should we do to fix this?
- can dry it out
- may rub a small amount of baby oil into skin
What is the major cause of death in neonatals?
hypothermia - especially in the first 3 days
what are some clinical signs of hypothermia in puppies?
- at first puppy will whimper and search for warm
- next, blue extremities, decreased HR and RR
- progresses further to no movement
What is the treatment for hypotherma?
- carefully warm up to 94 degrees F
- cuddle next to your bare skin
- submerge in warm water in plastic bag
- once the puppy can drink, give warm 5 - 10% glucose water
What does colostrum do?
provides large amount of maternal antibodies to protect against infectious diseases
Can we use milk products not designed for puppies and kittens?
What types of milk is bad for puppies and kittens?
- human infant formulas
- evaporated milk
- goat milk
- cow milk
Why is cow's milk bad for puppies and kittens?
- high in lactose and puppies lack the enzyme needed to break down lacctose
- lactose remains in digestive tract and pulls body fluids into GI tract
- can cause diarrhea, dehydration, and death
What are the three recipes for milk substitutes?
- 1/2 cup of whole milk
- 1 tsp of salad oil
- 1 drop of infant multiple vitamins
- 2 egg yolks
- 1/2 cup half and half
- 1 egg yolk
- 3 parts evaporated milk
- 1 part milk
What happens if the slit in the baby bottle nipple is too small? Too large?
- too small: puppy has to work too hard
- too large: formula rushes out and puppy can choke then aspirate
What position should the puppy be in to feed?
When does a puppy develop a gag reflex?
10 days old
When would we do a gavage?
- too weak to nurse
- no sucking reflex yet
- save time
What equipment do you need for a gavage?
- #12 french soft red rubber feeding tube or urinary catheter
- milk replacer
What can over feeding cause?
aspiration and diarrhea
How do we know when to stop feeding with a baby bottle?
- abdomen slightly distended
- puppy appears tired, stops nursing on his own
How do we know when to stop feeding with a gavage?
- abdomen appears slightly distended
- watch for outflow from mouth, this means they got too much
What is the caloric requirement for newborn puppies?
How much do we feed and how often?
divide daily amount into 3 or 4 feedings
When should we feed the puppy?
- avoid waking puppy to feed, feed them when they are already awake
- make sure he is alert enough to swallow
When should we start deworming puppies?
3 - 4 weeks old
When ca we start weaning a puppy off the bottle?
at about 2 - 3 weeks old, start feeding semisolid food
When should we transition puppy to regular puppy food?
by 7 - 8 weeks
What is the feeding schedule for weaning a puppy?
- 4 times a day at weaning
- 3 times a day at 4 months
- 2 times a day at 6 months
- 1 - 2 times a day at 1+ year
If we have multiple puppies, what are ways we can mark them to tell them apart?
- finger nail polish on toenails
- clip small patch of fur
When do we transition to regular kitten food?
by 11 - 12 weeks