These issues involve more actors, such as... (4 actors)
Also involve ____________ movements and individuals.
Issues are interlinked between.... (3 levels)
What changes were globalizing issues accelerated by?
Changes in communications and technology.
Health: Protecting Life in the Commons
The bubonic plague, smallpox, measles, and malaria are examples of ancient ______ problems.
What caused new dilemmas such as AIDS, dengue fever, and SARS?
21st century mobility
AIDS: What Kind of Issue?
How is AIDS a health issue?
People get incapacitated and die.
How is AIDS an economic issue?
It affects many people in their most productive years, including people in key occupations such as teachers and military.
How is AIDS a political issue?
It affects parts of the world differentially.
How is AIDS a security issue?
It is used as a "weapon of mass destruction".
AIDS: Many Actors
Players that deal with AIDS include: states and key leaders, such as.... (2 examples);
South Africa and Uganda
IGOs such as...(2 examples);
WHO and WTO
NGOs such as....;
Medecins sans Frontieres
Institutes and Foundations such as.....;
The Gates Foundation
Individuals such as.....
Carter and Clinton
and the epistemic community, which is a community of ________.
Health: A Theoretical Perspective
True/False: A functionalist issue is that there are high levels of disagreement of the need to address the problem. If false, why?
False. There are high levels of agreement about the need to address the problem.
There is also a need of ______ experts.
There are three different perspectives on the way to address this issue:
Liberals see this issue as whose ________ responsiblity.
Realists see this as ______ responsibility.
Radicals believe this illustrates the difference between ________ and ________.
Environment Principles: Hard and Soft Law
Environmental principles include: no _______ harm;
Politics of Population
Population increase is not uniformly distributed: Poorer countries have _______ growth rates;
Population growth and economic development means more deman for what?
Scarce natural resources.
High population growth leads to _____ dilemmas.
Natural Resource Issues
One issue is that there is increasing demand and decline of _______.
Oil is made more volatile by ________ manipulation.
Water is being fougt for over for ______ use and ________ in: (4 countries)
Global Warming Questions
One question is whether or not the climate is actually warming. Other questions that arise because of this is: if it is, what ________ will be felt? When?
Are __________ restraints sufficient?
How can states reduce the use of ______ fuels and still grow _________?
What costs should the ________ ________ pay?
What costs should the _____ _______ bear?
Environmental NGOs in Action
Environmental NGOs act as ______ critics, using ____ for publicity.
They work through _____ for a change.
They monitor and enforce _________, participate with _________ experts, and influence _______ in states.
monitor; enforce; community; policies
The Environment: A Theoretical Perspective
Realists have a traditional emphasis on ______ security, which requires ______ population, ______-_______ food supply, and ______ sources of energy, and fit environmental issues into the concepts of state, power, and sovereignty.
state; strong; self-sufficient; dependable
Radical are concerned with economic costs of ______, which will widen the gap between the ______ and ______, and see the costs of being born ____ in all states.
abatement; rich; poor; poor
Human Rights: Protecting Human Dignity
The basic concepts include: first-generation rights, which are...
political/civil rights, which are rights that states cannot take away, such as free speech and assembly.
second-generation rights, which are....
second-generation rights, which are rights that states should provide, such as health care and jobs.
third-generation rights, which are...
right of specific groups, such as minorities, women, and children.
An International Human Rights Regime?
The rules, norms, and procedures that emerge from high level cooperation, and the acceptance about how problems are addressed.
Human rights, through a web of _____ and _____ at the international and regional level, is based on _____ principles and engaged in setting rules, norms, and procedures.
IGOs; NGOs; core
Debate: Are Human Rights Universal?
There is a debate whether or not human rights apply to all in every state or region, or whether some rights are culturally relative. Some Asian writers argue that rights are _________ determined; in Asia, rights of ______ are ore important than the rights of the ________.
culturally; community; individual
What Can The International Community Do?
The international community can: set human rights ________ (UN);
______ the standards (UN, NGOs);
promote ______ about human rights;
and enforce ________.
Who enforces standards?
How does the UN go about enforcement?
Through embargoes, sanctions, and armed force.
Key Role of Human Rights NGOs
Key NGOs who play a role for human rights includes: ( NGOs)
International Committee of the Red Cross
Human Rights Watch
Women's Right As Human Rights: Evolution
After WWII, there was an emphasis on _________/_______ rights.
In the 1960s, there was an increasing concern for ________ rights.
This was known as the ______ _______ ______ movement.
Women in Development
There was also expanding issues with global _________ on women.
In the 1990s, women's rights were treated as _______ rights.
Women's Rights: From The Private To Public Sphere
What declared that "The rights of women and of the girl-child are an inalienable, integral, and indivisible part of human rights"
The Vienna Declaration in 1993.
What kind of rights were put into the public square?
Political, civil, economic, and social rights.
Ture/False: Gender-based violence remained in the private sphere. If false, why?
Globalizing Issues: Theoretical Perspectives
Realists have a more nuanced argument consistent with theory, which says that ______ security is still the key globalization.
Liberals argue that ________ issues are compatible with liberal views of human security and multiple actors.
Radicals argue that many globalizing issues confirm primacy of ________ issues and explain international _______.
Do Globalizing Issues Lead to Global Governance
Global governance defined:
In the absence of unifying political authority, there are various structures and processes through which actors coordinate interests and needs. Global governance would require states to abdicate their sovereignty not only in daily affairs but in a formal sense as well.