Vietnam Final Exam

  1. John F. Kennedy
    President of the Unitned States from January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
  2. Lyndon B. Johnson 
    Vice President to Kennedy and served as President from November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
  3. Dean Rusk
    served as secretary of state under JFK and was retained at same position under Johnson
  4. Robert McNamara
    sereved as secretary of defense for JFK and LBJ. he was the architect of the American military role in Vietnam
  5. Clark Clifford
    served as secretary of defense after mcnamara. also was honestly oppossed to expanisons of the american role in vietnam from the very begining. 
  6. George Ball
    Served as 23rd Under Secretary of State for both JFK and LBJ. He was widely oppossed to expansions of the american role in vietnam from the begining
  7. Chester Bowles
    22nd Under Secretary of State under JFK. He would be preceeded by George Ball. Like Ball and Clifford, he was widely oppossed to exapansion in the american role in Vietnam
  8. McGeorge Bundy
    6th United States National Security Advisor. He was In office from 1961–1966. He served under both JFK and LBJ. he would be succeeded by Rustow
  9. Walt Whitman Rustow
    1st United States Deputy National Security Advisor under JFK in 1961. Under Johnson, he would serve as 7th United States National Security Advisor. he would be succeeded by Henry Kissinger
  10. General Maxwell D. Taylor
    WWII hero, military adviosr to JFk, Chairman of Joint Cheifs of Staff, and Ambassador to South Vietnam. Taylor desired a more flexible militray response in Vietnam
  11. Frederick E. Nolting
    He was appointed by JFK as United States Ambassador to South Vietnam. Nolting was a firm supporter of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem to the point where JFK felt he had become too identified with Diem's regime to be effective, and was replaced by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
  12. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr
    U.S. senator from Massachusetts who was defeated by JFK in 1952, unsuccessful republican VP candidate in 1960, twice served as amabassador to South Vietnam under both JFK and LBJ, and led the move to remove Diem. 
  13. Willian P. Bundy
    Forgein Affairs advisor to both JFK and LBJ
  14. General Paul D. Harkins
    Commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV)
  15. General William Westmoreland
    Folowed Harkins as Commander of MACV. He adopted a strategy of attrition against the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese Army. he presneted a mirga eof progress claiming the U.S. had won every battle under his command, until the Tet Offensive, which shook american confidence in Westmoreland
  16. Gerneral Earle Wheeler
    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  17. General Harold K. Johnson
    Army Chief of Staff
  18. Edward G. Lansdale
    DEputy Assiatant Secretary for Special Operations
  19. LTC John Paul Vann
    Army Advisor to the Army Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)
  20. W. Averell Harriman
    Longtime ambassador at large. He was Under Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, and led the U.S. delegation at the Paris Peace talks in 1968. He, like Clifford, Ball, and Bowles was against an expansionin the american role in vietnam
  21. Roger Hilsman
    Assiatant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs. Architect of Strategic Hamlet Program and sought to oust Diem. 
  22. Robert F. Kennedy
    Attorney General, U.S. Senator from New York, democractic presidency hopeful in 1968 until his assasination. 
  23. Eugene Rustow
    Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
  24. Arthur Schlesinger Jr
    Special Assistant to JFK, white house historian
  25. Adlai Stevenson
    2 Time Democractic candidate for Presidency in 1952/1956. He served as Ambassador to the United Nations and was former governor of illnois.
  26. Lucien Conein
    CIA Agent, liaison between Ambassador Lodge Jr and SVN gernerla who overthrew Diem. 
  27. Hubert Humphrey
    U.S. senator from minnesota. Johnson's Vice President and democractic candidate for presidency in 1968. he was locked out of the inner circle when he voiced his opposition to the war. 
  28. Robert Komer
    led pacification efforts in SVN, nicknamed "The Blowtorch"
  29. Wayne L. Morse (D-Oregon) and Ernest H. Gruening(D-Alaska)
    only two U.S. Senators to vote against the Gulf of Tonkin Resoltuion. Both were oppossed to the expanison of the american role in vietnam like Ball, Bowles, Clifford, and Harriaman
  30. Ho Chi Minh
    Vietnamese Nationalist and Communist, President of Nort Vietnam, died in 1969
  31. Viet Minh
    supporters of Ho Chi Minh during period of french colonial rule
  32. Dien Bien Phu
    1954 battle where french were defeated by Viet Minh. General Giap led NVA Forces and Henri Navarre was french commander
  33. Laos, Cambodia, North Vietnam, South Vietnam
    4 countries created by 1954 Geneva Accords
  34. Ngo Dinh Diem
    President of South Vietnam, overthrown by ARVN and assasinated in 1963
  35. Green Barets
    American Special Forces sent to south vietnam by JFK to train and advise South Vietnames military forces
  36. ARVN
    Army of Republic of South Vietnam 
  37. NVA
    North Vietnamese Army, aka PAVN
  38. Viet Cong (VC)
    Vietnamese communist rebels who fought the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces. Commonly kown as "Charlie" by American soldiers
  39. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    August 1944- congressional resolution which authroized LBJ to expand military prescence in Vietnam and widen the war to include bombing North Vietnam after suspected NVA naval attacks against the american naval ship Maddox in the gulf of tonkin. The commander of the maddox was admiral jame stockdile
  40. Nguyen Van Thieu and Ngyuen Cao Ky
    Thieu was the last president of South Vietnam and Cao Ky aided him in overthrowing Diem in 1963. Together he avoid coups, gain, power,, oust buhddist leaders, and provide soe form of stability in south vietnam
  41. Tet Offensive
    Feburary 1968- VC and NVA military offensive against american military forces during truce period, which challenged american assertion that the war was being won, and also led to the decision of LBJ not to run agan in 1968. NVA Commanders were Giap and Thanh
  42. Khe Sanh
    american marine base in northwestern south vietnam. it was the sight of the most recognizable battle of the vietnam war in 1968
  43. Hamburger Hill
    May 1969- battle fought by the 101st Airborne against NVA, which came to symbolize american inability to ever win the vietnam war
  44. My Lai 4
    • March 16, 1968- vietnamese viallage that was the site of a civilian masscre of vietnamese citizens led by Lt. Willam Calley.
    • 1st Lt. William Calley - leader of 1st platoon, Charlie Co - American Division - charged with 22 counts of murder at My Lai
    • Captain Medina - Cpt of Americal Division - "Gave orders for My Lai Massacre" 
    • Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson - Helped civilians during the My Lai Massacre
  45. Christmas Bombings
    1972- american B-52 bomber campaign launched against two largest North Vietnamese cities, Hanoi and Haiphong
  46. Vietnamization
    Nixon's plan to end american participation in vietnam war by completely turning over the fighting to ARVN
  47. Paris Peace Accords
    Jan 1973- agreement which temporarily ended the vietnam war and ended direct military involvement of the U.S. in vietnam.The U.S. wanted: ceasefire, POW's returned, and for Saigon goverment to remain in power.  The North Vietnamese  wanted: unilateral withdrawal of American troops while NVA and VC troops remained in South Vietnam, a bombing halt, the overthrow of South Vietnamese government, and for the National Liberation Front to be active in South Vietnamese government. Lee Duc Tho wouldn't budge, but in a series of secret meetings with kissinger, the terms owuld eventuall be signed by all parties. War would resume soon after american forces departed, and the South Vietnamese capital city of Saigon fell to communist on April 30, 1975 ending three decades of war.
  48. Henry Kissinger
    Nixon hired him as National Security Advisor in 1968. He held secret negotiations in 1970 with Lee Duc Tho for 3 weekend sessions in Paris, and eventually gave the United States its "Peace with Honor." Kissinger and Duc Tho would be awarded 1973 Nobel PEace Prize for their efforts.
  49. Lam Son 719
    Joint operation into Laos by ARVN and U.S. forces as an effort to destroy base operations of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos. The most significant factor of Lam Son 719 was the "failure of Vietnamization"
  50. Strategic Hamlet Program
    aka operation sunrise. it was a plan to move villagers from their rural areas to fortified villages to protect them from VC. It operated under the assumption that the people wanted to be protected from the VC. Pham Thao was colonel in the South Vietnames army but worked as a double agent for North Vietnames. he was put in charge of implementing the hamlet program
  51. Studies and Observation Group  
    Headed up by CIA operate William Colby in Saigon with the purpose of gathering intel on Viet Minh forces moving across the border into South Vietnam. Program was largley unsuccessful due to the location of troops ad the cambodian troops being largely illiterate
  52. Phoenix Program
    1963- Was the CIA's longest and bloodiest campaign. The goal was to destroy viet cong infrastructure by depleting local support. They would make lists of suppossed viet cong sympathizers and would kill anyone found in the company of Viet Cong wheteher they supported them or not. They would use interrogation centers where they would execute without trial and use torture to gain information
  53. American Allies During the Vietnam War
    Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, South Korea. Out besides the U.S., the south koreans had the largest commitment of troops.
  54. Everett Alvarez, John McCain and the Hanoi Hilton
    name given to the Hoa Lo Prison. U.S. POWs were kept in putrid living conditons, fed very little, and torutred in an effort to indoctrinate them. Alvarez was the first American pilot to be shot down and captured in Vietnam. He was a POW for nearly 9 years. McCain was the son and grandson of U.S. admirals of the pacific fleet. NVA referred to him as the prince. he was beaten continuously when he refused to give up information adn was asked if he wanted to be released as a effort to show humane treatment to U.S. but demoralizing to the POWs, McCain refused. 
  55. Son Tay Raid
    an attempt by the U.S. to free POWs at the prison camp. Through they prisoners were no longer at the camp when the invasion occurred, it gave hope to POWs and their families, as well as the American public in general. It showed POWS they had not been forgotten and caused the NVA shut down their outlying POW camps and began to consolidate, bringing prisoners into Hanoi for fear of future raids. Consolidation led to better living condiots for POWs.
  56. Kent State and Jackson State
    Kent State was the killing of 4 and wounding of 9 students at the kent state campus whle the students protested the cambodian invasions. James A Rhondes was the gov of ohio and rising star in republican party who ordered out ohio national guard on that day. Jacskon state was the usual anitwar tension coupleed with racial tenison resulting in 2 dead and 15 wounded.
  57. Invasion of Cambodia
    tactic used by Nixon to try and end the way by trapping NVA and VC supplies. Was an overall disater because the enemy fortress and headquarters were illusive, and U.S. couldnt find anything of any worth. Lt General Lolnol was the leader of camodia who overthrew Prince Shinonavk while he was on vacation
  58. Students for a Democractic Society
    Student leg organization that focused on two goals of civil rights and cold war. was part of the new left movment where cultural reform in american youth was the focus. SDS leaders were Al Harber and Tom Hayden, and hayden wrote the "Port Huron Statement" as the SDS manifesto. 
  59. Weathermen
    a group that broke away fro the SDS when they became increasingly frustrated with the lack of action. The weatermen would be a radical group led by Tom Hayden, Mark Rudd, Bill Ayers, and Bernadine Dohrn. The would bombSan fran plice dept, us capitol building, and the pentagon. 
  60. Fall of Saigon
    With american troops being removed from Vietnam and the resignation of nixon, american inertdiction if north vietnam broke the treaty was gone. Only the American's in the U.S. embassy remained, in opertaion eaple pull, the remaining americans were rescued from Phnom Penh. In a series of battles, NVA troops led by General Van Tien Dung would take Saigon in the Ho Chi Minh campaign.
Card Set
Vietnam Final Exam
a compilation of the best and the brightest alongside particular events during French and American involvement in Vietnam