1. Insulin will is released by what cells in the pancreas?
    Beta Cells.

    Alpha Cells in the pancreas release glucogon to glucose to incraese blood sugar (opposite rx to insulin)
  2. Normal Glucose # on Casual Testing?
  3. Hyperglycemia is at what level?
  4. Alpha and Beta cells are destroyed in what kind of disease?
    Type 1 Diabetes
  5. Polydipsia
    Drinking Alot: caused by increased serum osmolarity due to excess glucose in the blood attracting water and solutes.

    When glucose is high, blood serum is hypertonic.
  6. The way to determine symolgyi vs dawn phenomenon?
    Early AM glucose testing (like 3am). If the levels are high it is dawn phenomenon. If the levels are low its somogyi.

    Both syndromes result in high blood sugar upon waking.
  7. How to treat Somogyi Effect?
    Decrease bedtime insulin.
  8. How to treat Dawn phenominon?
    Limit evening snacks or increase nighttime insulin
  9. What triggers catecholamine,glucagon, cortisol and growth hormone to be released?
    Somogyi Effect in Diabetics.
  10. Insulin is increased when what other biochemicals increase?
    Glucose, Amino Acids, glucagon, gastrin

    Insulin decreases with decreased glucose, excess insulin in serum or stimulation of alpha cells.
  11. Polyphagia occurs due to the fact that
    glucose is unable to get into tissues of the body
  12. Hypoglycemia occurs at what level? What should you do if the person is conscious? What level do you need to take more serious action? What do you do?
    45-60 is considered mild hypoglycemia. However anything 70 and under is hypoglycemia. For mild, treat with simple sugar (15 to 20g like soda)followed by complex carb to maintain the blood sugar. In the eventĀ  of a severe hypoglycemia. Treat with an D50 IV push (dextrose 50%) or 1mg glucagon IM followed by a complex carb
  13. What is Normal, Pre Diabetes and Diabetes ranges for an Imparied Fasting Glucose (IFG)
    • Normal below 100
    • Pre Diabetes 100-125
    • Diabetes125+
  14. What is normal, pre diabetes and diabetes ranges for Impaired glucose tolerance?
    • Below 140 Normal
    • 140-199 Pre Diabetes
    • 200+ Diabetes
  15. What is a normal A1C level? (Glysolated test)
    Below 6.5%. A1C is unique because it measures blood glucose over a period of about 3 months.
  16. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs Hyperglycemia Hyperosmolar State (HHS)?
    Both involve dehydration

    • However DKA has ketones, HHS does not.
    • In DKA monitor K+ levels,
  17. What is a unique trait of Type 1 diabetes?
    • Weight loss.
    • Insulin dependency due to Alpha and Beta Cell Destruction
    • Young onset.

    Type one will not get oral glycemic agents since they do not have any insulin to work with.
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