Soc 134 Ch. 13

  1. Birth Cohorts
    sets of people who were born during the same time perod and who face similar societal circumstances brought about by their position in the age structure of the population. 
  2. Period Effect
    Phenomenon in which a historical event or major social trend contributes to the unique shape and outlook of a birth cohort
  3. cohort effect
    phenomenon in which members of a birth cohort tend to experience a particular life course event or rite of passage- puberty, marriage, childbearing, graduation, entry into the workforce, death- roughly the same time
  4. age structure
    population's balance of old and young people
  5. demographer
    sociologist who studies trends in population characteristics
  6. migration
    movement of populations from one geographic area to another
  7. urbanization
    process by which people leave rural areas and begin to concentrate in large cities
  8. Transition to adulthod
    complex, disjointed and confusing
  9. Marketers Created New stages
    i.e. toddler and tween to sell products
  10. Emerging adulthood
    a new period of life for young people in the u.s. and other industralized societies, lasting from the late teens through the mid- to later twenties
  11. Traditional Markers for adulthood
    • marriage
    • children
    • stable career
  12. Six major factors contributing to "Emerging Adulthood"
    • Growth of higher Education
    • Delay in age of Marriage
    • economic changes undermining possibility of stable lifelong careers
    • Increase of family resources extended to young adult children
    • availability of effective Birth Control
    • Absolute moral relativism 
  13. Identifying Exploration
    most central feature of emerging adulthood is that it is time when young people expore possibilities for their lives in a variety of areas, especially love and work
  14. Instability
    emerging adults make numerous revisions to life plans
  15. Self-focused
    Emerging adults have few ties
  16. Feeling in-between
    Emerging adults feel inbetween adolescence and adulthood
  17. possibilities
    Emerging Adulthood is the age of possibilities
  18. qualities of emerging adults
    • Identity exploration
    • instability
    • self- focused
    • feeling in-between
    • possibilities
  19. Lost in Transition
    • Study done by Smith 
    • (interviewed adults age 18-23)

    Emerging Adults are unable to engage in moral resoning, captive to consumerism, routinely intoxicated, suffering from hurts and regrets from their sexual experiences and disengaged
  20. demography
    the study of human population
  21. Three major components of demography
    • fertility
    • mortality
    • migration
  22. birth cohort
    set of people who were born during the same era and who face similar societal circumstances brought about by their shared position in the overall age structure of the population
  23. What geneeration are we in? 
    Generation Z
  24. Generational labels in order
    • GI Generation
    • Silent Generation
    • Baby boomers
    • mers
    • Baby busters
    • Echo Boomers
    • Generation z
  25. Thomas Malthus
    an early proponent of the claim that growing world population would end in disaster
  26. Demographic Transition
    stage of societal development in unindustrialized countries marked by growing life expectancy and high birthrates; why less developed countries grow faster
  27. Four stages of demographic transition theory
    • Stage 1: slow growth because of very high birth and death rates
    • Stage 2: rapid growth because death rate drops, but birth rate remains the same
    • Stage 3: slow growth because birth rat drops to approach death rate
    • Stage 4: Zero population growth
  28. Causes of "missing girls"
    • preference for boys over girls
    • fewer children per family
    • medical technology
  29. Consequences of "missing girls"
    • marriage squeeze
    • possibly more crime and social unrest
    • female migration
    • forced marriage
    • sex trafficking
Card Set
Soc 134 Ch. 13
Demographic Dynamics (Population Trends)