Human Sexuality

  1. Sexual Assault
    • sexual contact or activity that occurs w/o consent
    • unwanted contact to forces intercourse
  2. rape
    • unwanted sexual penetration of vagine, mouth, or anus by use of threat or force
    • including forced penetration by objects
  3. incidence and prevalence of rape
    • in 2009 89,000 women repoted rape
    • most go unreported
    • estimated there are 300,000-683,000 women raped in US each year
    • difficult to assess occurrence due to
    • -under-reporting, fear, shame, stigma, mistrust, variations in the way data is gathered and reported
  4. Feminist theory about rape
    • rape is a tool used by men in our society to keep women submissibe and powerless
    • goal of rape is power, dominance, and control
    • rape is more prevelant in societies where women occupy a lower status than men
    • Doubts:
    • rape is widespread in animal kingdom
    • rape occurs in all human cultures
  5. Evolutionary theory about rape
    • rape is evolutionary strategy to increase reproductive success of low-status males
    • in men's nature
    • rapist may target attractive women that are in childbearing age
    • Flaws:
    • 1/3 of most rape victims are under the age of 11
    • poor benefit-to-risk ratio
    • doesnt account for rape of males
  6. Rape myths
    • women want to be raped
    • bring it upone themselves
    • men who rape do so b/c they can't control sexual desires
    • committed by psychopathic stranges
    • only women can be raped
  7. Types of rape
    • stranger
    • acquaintance rape
    • date rape
    • partner rape
    • gang
    • statutory
    • prison rape
    • rape on campus
    • drug, alcohol, and rape
  8. stranger rape
    • 17% of rapes against women
    • 23% of rapes against men
  9. acquantane and date rape
    • uup to 86% of women raped by someone they know
    • most not reported
    • date rape is seen as lesser crime thant stranger rape, and victim is often blamed
    • doesnt necessarily involve physical force
  10. sexual consent
    • isnt usually given directly
    • signals are nonverbal, vague, ambiguous, and easily misinterpreted
  11. partner rape
    • 25% of rapes
    • least likely to be reported and gets least response from law enforcement
    • motives: domination and degradation
    • women at risk if men veiw them as propery, has a violent realationship, pregnant or ill, seperated or divorced
  12. gang rape
    • rape of single victim by group
    • violent
    • witnessed by others, and still may not be reported due to bystander effect
  13. statutory rape
    • intercourse w/ someone who isn't a child, but is below age of consent
    • which varies by state and ranges from 14-18
  14. rape in prison
    • by inmates or staff
    • 21% of prisoners reported being victims of coerced or forced sexual contacts
    • underreported b/c of shame and fear
    • usually about power, not sex
  15. rape on campus
    • 1/4 of women will be raped in college
    • many committed by fraternity members or athletes
  16. drugs, alcohol, and rape
    • alcohol is one of the strongest predictors of acquaintance rape and sexual aggression
    • impaired communication
  17. date rape drugs
    • used to assist commission of a sexual assauly
    • amnesiac, disinhibiting, and dissociative properties
    • rohypnol, GHB, ketamine, Klonipin, Xanax
  18. who are the rapists?
    • most are single men under 30 who know victim
    • varies in motivation, personalitities, backgrounds, and psychological characteristics
    • wants to gain power, control
  19. rapists treatments
    • pschotherapy and group thereapy
    • medications: temp castration, and antidepressants decrease sex drive
  20. who are the victims
    • can be anyone
    • native americans are significantly more likely to report rape
    • 54-63% of rape victims are under 18
  21. effects on rape on survivors
    • physically, emotionally, and psychologically shattering
    • STI's and pregnancy
    • depression andĀ  PTSD
    • more likely to attempt suicide or have substance abuse
    • no single rape syndrome: may experience anger, fear, humiliation, isolation and sexual dysfuncitons, puts sever stress on intimate relationships
  22. First rape laws
    • man's property had been damaged
    • wife was often punished with attaker
  23. rape-free societies
    women treated w/ respect and there is little interpersonal violence
  24. rape-prone societies
    • characterized by male dominance and interpersonal violence, especially toward women
    • united state's gender roles and violence is one of highest among industrialized countries
  25. rape in the media
    • many of the presentations support rape myths
    • TV associates violence with passion
    • films, rape is often eroticized
  26. Childhood sexual abuse CSA
    • inappropriate sexual behavior between child and adult
    • widespread, 20-25% of women nad 16% of men were sexually abused as children
    • Incest 20-24% experience incest
  27. Characteristics of Child Sex Abusers
    • many are trusted relatives, friends, or neighbors
    • not all are pedophiles
    • lower IQ
    • poor social skills
    • low self esteem
    • more religious and conservative
    • heterosexual males
    • take advantage of victims innocence
  28. effects of abuse on Children and Adult survivors
    • emotional, psychological, social, and sexual problems
    • consequences are more serious if abuse goes on for a long period and involves a close relationship, such as a father or stepfather
  29. megan's law
    • informal name for laws in U.S regarding registratin and public notification about sex offenders
    • differ from state to state
    • more than 674,000 on sex offender registries
    • have trouble finding a job and buying house
  30. Intimate partner ViolenceĀ  IPV
    • more thant 10% of US pop is hurt at home
    • includes physical, sexual, mental, and economic abuse
    • control
    • accounts for 20% of nonfatal violent crimes against women and 3% against men
  31. Consequences of IPV
    bruises, welts, burns, fractures

    long term: increase risk of ill-health and psychological and behavioral problems: IBS, chronic pain, substance abuse, suicide and homicide, PTSD, eating disorders, anxiety
  32. Sexual Harassment
    • unwanted sexual attentin that interferes with individual's basic right to employment or education; most widespread of all sexually coercive behaviors
    • Quid pro quo type: compliance with unwanted sexual advances is required as condition of employment or advancement
    • hostile environment: persistent inappropriate behaviors make workplace offensive and unbearable
  33. incidence os sexual harassmnet
    • pervasive
    • 40-60% of women affected
    • most likely to occur against those whose job is non traditional for gender
    • fewer than 10% of victims file formal complaints or initiate legal proceedings
  34. Sexual Harassment onf Campus
    • 80% of incidents are peer-to-peer
    • three main types
    • 1. gender harassment (most common): sexually degrading or sexist remarks and behaviors
    • 2.Unwanted sexual attention: inappropriate and offensive sexual comments, behaviors, or advances
    • 3.Sexual bribery and imposition: promise of reward in return for sex
  35. Effects of Sexual Harassment on Victims
    • healt, relationships, finances, and eduaction or career
    • headaches, sleeplessness, depression, PTSD, anger, anxiety, guily, betrayal, and insecurity
Card Set
Human Sexuality
sexual coercion and violence