BI 233 A&P Lab-Ex. 41

  1. Urine--color
    • Clear, pale yellow or amber d/t presence of urochrome
    • Depends on concentration--Image Upload 1solutes = deeper yellow
    • Depends on diet
  2. Urochrome
    • Pigment metabolite d/t the destruction of hemoglobin (via bilirubin/bile pigments)
    • Provides the normal yellow color of urine
  3. Urine--odor
    • "Slightly aromatic"
    • Higher concentration Image Upload 2 stronger odor
    • Bacterial action in standing urine Image Upload 3 ammonia like odor
    • UTI can Image Upload 4 "foul" odor
    • Elevated ketones (eg from uncontrolled DM) Image Upload 5 fruity acetone odor
    • Diet/Drugs/Disease Processes can affect odor
  4. What would give urine a "fruity, acetone" smell?
    Elevated ketones from a condition such as uncontrolled DM
  5. What would give urine a "foul" smell?
  6. What would give urine an "ammonia-like" smell?
    Bacterial action if urine is left standing
  7. What are the normal constituents of urine?
    • Water
    • Urea
    • Uric acid
    • Creatinine
    • Na+
    • K+
    • PO4-
    • SO22-
    • Amorphous Crystals
    • Urochrome
  8. What normal constituents of urine occur in much smaller and highly variable amounts?
    • Ca+
    • Mg+
    • HCO3- (and H+)
    • (Abnormally high concentrations may indicate a pathological condition)
  9. What may occur in trace amounts in the urine?
    • Ketones--after a long fast; d/t Image Upload 6carb diet
    • RBCs--in males after strenuous workout
    • Protein--in pregnant females; in males after strenuous workout
    • Sperm--in males if 1st urination after ejaculation
  10. What is normal pH of urine?
    4.5-8.0 (avg 6.0)
  11. What would increase the urine pH?
    • High vegetable diet
    • "Alkaline Ash Foods"
  12. What would decrease pH of urine?
    • High protein/whole wheat diet
    • "Acid Ash Foods"
  13. What pathological process might increase urine pH?
    • Bacterial infection
    • (vit. C interferes w/UTI testing)
  14. What is the normal specific gravity of urine?
    • 1.001-1.030
    • SG (distilled H2O)=1.000 d/t 1 mL weighs 1 g
  15. What is indicated by a higher specific gravity of urine?
    Image Upload 7SG=Image Upload 8solvents=generally darker=Image Upload 9chance of stones
  16. Relan Calculi
    "kidney stones"
  17. What are abnormal constituents of urine?
    • Bilirubin
    • Protein
    • Glucose
    • WBC
    • RBC
    • Casts
    • Nitrites--d/t bacteria breaking down protein/nitrogenous wastes
    • Urobilinogen
    • Crystals
    • Ketones
Card Set
BI 233 A&P Lab-Ex. 41