When does the neonatal period end?
- when the baby can survive without its mother
- about 4 weeks
What are different ways we can assess puppies in utero?
- radiological evaluation
- ultrasound evaluation
Describe premature puppies.
- decreased ability to nurse
- lungs may not expand fully
- lack of SQ fat causes puppies to be more cold
What is the gestation length for dogs?
- about 63 days
- ranges from 58 - 71 days
What is the gestation length dependent on?
What is easier to determine in dogs, breeding date or ovulation date? Why?
breeding date because a lot of times the owners will see this happen
When do dogs ovulate?
ovulation can occur from 3 days before to 11 days after the onset of estrus
How can a cytology help us determine ovulation?
6 days after ovulation, baginal cells change markedly from cornified to non-cornified
What can we see on a radiograph from day 31 - 38 of pregnancy?
spherical enlargements of uterus
What can we see on a radiograph on day 35 of pregnancy?
usterus diffusely enlarged
What can we see on a radiograph from day 43 - 54 of pregnancy?
first signs of mineralization of bones
What can we see on a radiograph from day 58 - 61 of pregnancy?
What are some signs of fetal death?
- uterus fails to enlarge
- gas within uterus or fetus
- lack of skeletal growth
- skull deformity or skeletal misalignment
When can we use ultrasound to detecct pregnancy?
days 18 - 20
When can we detect a fetal heartbeat on an ultrasound?
day 24 - 28
If we see gas pockets in fetus or uterus what does that indicate?
- fetal death
- gas pockets will show up white
How early can we palpate to detect pregnancy? What are we feeling for?
- day 21 - 28
- feel vesicles, like big beads on a string - if mom is not too big, fat, or tense
What are some signs of parturition?
- drop in temperature
- nest building
When does the temperature drop before the onset of parturition and why does it drop? What does the temperature drop to?
- temperature drops 8 - 12 hours before onset of parturition due to deop in progesterone levels
- below 100 degrees F - average 98.8
When do we start monitoring the temperature of the mother?
twice a day starting at 55 - 59 days
If the temperature drops below 100 degrees then that indicates that labor should start _____.
within 24 hours
When do mothers start building a nest?
within 12 - 24 hours of the onset of labor
Should owners be hovering over the mother while she is trying to give birth? Why or why not?
no because it could make her anxious causing uterine inertia
How many stages of labor are there?
Why do we need to know the stages of labor?
so we know when to intervene
How long does uterine contraction and cervical dilation lasts?
6 - 12 hours
What are some signs to look for before a mother gives birth?
- may vomit or have diarrhea
What is stage 1 of parturition?
What is stage 2 of parturition?
What stimulates the cervix to start straining?
if we have to pull a puppy out of the vulva, how should we do it?
- grasp legs with soft towel
- pull gently down toward mother's hocks
What should we tell our clients about how frequently the mother should be pushing out her puppies?
- no more than 4 hours between start of stage 2 and delivery of first puppy
- no more than 2 hours between puppies
What is stage 3?
delivery of placenta
Will the mother try to eat the placenta?
yes and that is okay
What will happen if the mother chews the umbilical cord too short?
could cause an umbilical hernia
What is lochia? Is this normal? When do we see it?
- forest-green discharge
- yes its normal
- lasts for several hours, days, maybe even 1 - 2 weeks after delivery
What do we need to watch in the mother after giving birth?
- abnormal discharge
What does mastitis look like?
glands are swollen, hard, painful, red, gives abnormal milk
What is dystocia?
difficulty giving birth
Which animal is more likely to have dystocia, dog or cat?
When do we diagnose dystocia?
- no fetus presented within 4 - 6 hours from onset of labor or from the time the the last fetus was delievered
- no attempts by mother to deliver fetus
- labor contractions are weak or infrequent
- depression, weakness, or toxemia present
- no puppies born by day 72 of gestation
- no puppies born within 2 - 3 hours after placental membranes have ruptured
- no puppies born after 2 - 3 hours of active labor
What are some maternal causes of dystocia?
- uterine inertia
- pelvic abnormalities
- uterine torsion
- abdominal hernias
What causes uterine inertia?
- large litter, older mother
- tires out
- owner interference causing anxiety
What are some pelvic abnormalities that can cause dystocia?
- too small naturally
- old pelvic injuries
What are some fetal causes of dystocia?
- oversized fetus
- malposition of fetus (blocking birth canal)
What are some treatments for dystocia?
- caesarian section
What is oxytocin?
injection that causes uterine contractions and milk let-down
Before we give an injection of oxytocin, what do we need to do?
- make sure there is no obstruction in the pelvic canal
- take x-rays, palpate rectally or vaginally
Do some veterinarians give oxytocin routinely after delivery? Why or why not?
yes, to help expel residual material, shrink down uterus, decrease hemorrhage
What can happen if oxytocin is gven when pelvic canal is blocked?
can rupture uterus
What is a C-section?
surgical removal of fetus from uterus
What is the different between a hysterotomy and a hysterectomy?
- hysterotomy: c-section
- hysterectomy: spay
How should we care for the puppies once we remove them from a C-section?
- rupture membranous sac over nose and mouth immediately so puppies can breathe
- clear all fluid from puppies mouth and nose
- tie off umbilical cord with sterile suture material
- rub puppies briskly with soft towel to stimulate them to breathe
- place in incubator
How should we clear the fluid from the puppies mouth and nose?
sling or aspirate with bulb syringe
If the placenta or hemostats are still attached to the umbilical cord, should we let the weight of them dangle on the cord?
no, could cause a hernia
How short should we cut the umbilical cord and why?
- tie off 2 cm long
- first "milk" is the blood in the cord
When does the umbilical cord fall off?
2 - 3 days
How warm should the incubator be?
85 - 90 degrees F
What is doxapram? How can we give it?
- respiratory stimulant
- PO, SQ, IM, IV in umbilical cord before tied
- easiest is to give 1 - 2 drops under the tongue