Kidneys Mac Style

  1. What connects the kidney to the bladder?
  2. Where does the nephron extend into?
    Renal medulla
  3. What are the 3 primary mechanisms of the kidney involved in the production of urine?
    glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion
  4. What happens during glomerular filtration?
    Plasma is loaded into the tubular system
  5. What happens during tubular reabsorption?
    The "good stuff" is returned from the tubule to the capillary
  6. What happens during tubular secretion?
    Additional waste is secreted from the capillary to the tubule
  7. Approximately how many nephrons does each kidney have?
    About 1 million
  8. What are the 2 components of the renal corpuscle?
    Glomerulus and Bowmans Space
  9. What are the 2 components of the collecting duct system?
    Cortical collecting duct and medullary collecting duct
  10. What are the 4 components of the renal tubule (in order)?
    Proximal tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct system
  11. What are the 4 primary mechanisms of the nephron involved in the production of urine?
    Filtration, reabsorption, excretion, secretion
  12. What are the 2 types of capillaries in nephrons?
    Glomerular and peritubular
  13. What are the 2 types of aretioles in the nephron?
    Afferent and efferent
  14. Where does glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption occur?
    Renal corpsucle
  15. What surrounds capillaries?
    Podocytes of Bowman's capsule
  16. What allows fluid to pass into Bowmans capsule?
    Filtration slits between the podocytes
  17. What are the epithelial foot processes?
  18. What is the glomerular capillary blood pressure?
    60 mmHg
  19. What is the net glomerular filtration pressure?
  20. Is filtration higher at afferent end or efferent end?
    Afferent end
  21. What are the 2 factors that lead to a large filtration faction?
    Large filtration coefficient and large avg hydrostatic pressure difference
  22. How many liters of plasma are filtered every day?
  23. What happens in the glomerular capillaries?
  24. What happens in the peritubular capillaries?
  25. What is renal clarence?
    The volume of solute that must be completely cleared of x to account for what is excreted in the urine
  26. What is glomerular filtration rate?
  27. What is the clearance if everything that is filtered is reabsorbed?
  28. What has a clearance of 0?
  29. When is the clearance equal to the renal plasma flow?
    If a substance is filtered and secreted and none of the solute is left in the venous blood
  30. What happens to water channels in the presence of ADH?
    Water channels insert in collecting tube membrane and permit osmotic equilibrium between collecting duct fluid and medullary interstitial fluid
  31. What happens to water channels in the absence of ADH?
    Water channels are removed from collecting tube membrane and urine remains hypo-osmotic as it passes through collecting duct
  32. What is water reabsorption coupled with?
    Na+ reabsorption
  33. What helps stabilizie pH when acids or bases are added?
    Body fluid buffers
  34. What is the major extracellular buffer in the body?
    CO2/HC03 buffer system
  35. What happens to CO2 during hyperventilation?
  36. What happens to PCO2, pH, and HCO3 during respiratory acidsosis weakness?
    PCO2 up, pH down, HCO3 up
  37. What are 3 causes of respiratory acidosis weakness?
    lung disease, drug, muscel
  38. What happens to PCO2, pH, and HCO3 during respiratory alkalosis?
    PCO2 down, pH up, HCO3 down
  39. What are 2 causes of respiratory alkalosis?
    Anxiety and high altitude
  40. What does PCO2 do during non-respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?
    Stays steady
  41. What happens to pH and HCO3 during non- respiratory acidosis?
    They go down
  42. What causes non- respiratory acidosis?
    anaerobic exercise, diarrhea
  43. What happens to pH and HCO3 during non- respiratory alkalosis?
    They go up
  44. What causes non-respiratory alkalosis?
    Vomiting and alkaline tide
  45. What does high PCO2 result in?
    Respiratory acidosis
  46. What does low PCO2 result in?
    Respiratory alkalosis
  47. What organ regulates HC03?
  48. Where does acid-base transport take place?
    Proximal tubule
  49. What is the difference between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis?
  50. What are the 4 general GI functions?
    Mechanical, secretory, digestive, absorptive
  51. What are the 3 mechanical functions of the GI tract?
    Grinding/ pulverizing, mixing, propulsion
Card Set
Kidneys Mac Style