Game Design final

  1. The Continuum of Complexity
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    • Fixed - unchanging (black tv)
    • Periodic - repeat same patterns endlessly (2way msgr)
    • Complex - not fully chaotic, but complex in an interesting way
    • Chaotic - constantly in motion w random relationships (static filled tv)
  2. Emergence


    "Systems generate complex and unpredictable patterns of behavior from simple rules, the whole is more than the sum of its parts" (emergence)

    each interaction links and is linked to other interactions in the system (coupled)

    change moment to moment depending on what is currently happening in the system (context-dep)
  3. Engines
    When a game is emergent, they can be created by using units in unexpected combinations
  4. Schell's Tips for Building Communities
    • 1. Give the ability to talk
    • 2. Have someone worth talking to
    • 3. Have something worth talking about
  5. Types of conflict
    • 1. Single player vs single player: chess, boxing
    • 2. Group vs group: basketball, soccer, team sports
    • 3. One against many: tag, mother may I
    • 4. Every player for themselves: foot race, Risk
    • 5. Single player vs game system: solitaire, tetris
    • 6. Indiv. players side by side vs the game: casino Blackjack
    • 7. Group of players vs the game: Lord of the Rings board game
  6. Direct conflict
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  7. Indirect conflict
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  8. Direct + Indirect conflict
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  9. Why are all games competitive?
    because all games involve conflict, and all games have clearly defined goals
  10. Systemic and player cooperation
    • Systemic cooperation: refers to the fundamental, discursive cooperation that is intrinsic to all games
    • Player cooperation: refers to games in which players all work together to achieve the goal (not all games exhibit player cooperation)
  11. Pleasure (physical)
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    • Hitting the ball in fooseball
  12. Pleasure (emotional)
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  13. Pleasure (psychological)
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  14. Pleasure (ideological)
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  15. Autotelic play
    • auto (self) telos (goal)
    • A self contained activity, one that is done not with the expectation of some future benefit, but simply because the doing itself is the reward

    Used by Mihaly Csik... in Flow
  16. Marc LeBlanc's typology of experiential pleasure
    • Sensation: sense-pleasure
    • Fantasy: make believe
    • Narrative: drama
    • Challenge: obstacle course
    • Fellowship: social framework
    • Discovery: uncharted territory
    • Expression: self-discovery
    • Submission: masochism
  17. Michael Apter's Framework of Play
    • Exposure to arousing stimulation: intense and overwhelming sensation
    • Fiction & narrative: emotional arousal from character identification
    • Challenge: difficulties and frustrations arising from competiton
    • Exploration: moving off the beaten track into new territory
    • Negativism: deliberate and provocative rule breaking
    • Cognitive synergy: imaginative play
    • Facing danger: risk within the protective frame of play
  18. Caillois' four categories of play
    • 1. Agon: competition and competitive structure
    • 2. Alea: submission to the fortunes of chance
    • 3. Mimicry: role playing and make believe play
    • 4. Ilinx: vertigo and physical sensation
  19. What leads to a flow state?
    • Challenging activity
    • clear goals
    • clear feedback
    • paradox of having control in an uncertain situation
  20. What are the effects of flow state?
    • the merging of action and awareness
    • intense concentration
    • loss of self-consciousness
    • transformation of time
  21. Experience (according to salen and zimmerman)
    • Play is experienced though participation
    • Psych. process games are experienced:
    • - concentration
    • - visual scanning
    • - auditory discriminations
    • - motor responses
    • - perceptual patterns of learning

    To improve experience, a game must be evaluated often
  22. Core mechanic
    • the essential moment-to-moment activity that players enact
    • the core mechanic is repeated over and over again in order to create the larger pattern of experience
    • Core mechanic breaks e.g. in Breakout when the wall is broken and the ball bounces a little further
  23. Player types according to salen and zimmerman
    • Standard
    • Dedicated
    • Unsportsmanlike
    • Cheater
    • Spoil-sport (not accepting the authority of the game)
  24. Schell's five types of space organization
    • Linear - can only more forward (and maybe back) along a line, ie monopoly, candyland, guitar hero
    • Grid - easy to understand, better proportions, ie chess or settlers of catan
    • Web - marking several points and connecting them with paths, ie Trivial Pursuit, zork
    • Points in Space - wandering a desert, player defines gamespace ie Bocce or Thin Ice
    • Divided Space - most like a real map, carved into sections ie Risk
  25. Emergence according to Sweetser
    describes the properties, behaviors, and structure thatoccur at higher levels of a system, which are not present or predictable at lowerlevels
  26. Mimetic interfaces (via Juul)
    1. Magic crayon
    2. Space
    3. Minigames
    • 1. they make it easy for players to experience competence
    • 2. they shift focus from the threedimensionalspace created by the game graphics, to the concrete player space
    • 3. minigames bring another layer of flexibility in game design, anotherway of letting players use a game as they wish
  27. John Horton Conway
    British mathematician active in the theory of finite groups, knot theory, number theory, combinatorial game theory and coding theory
  28. Lev Vygotsky
    Russian psychologist, founder of cultural-historical psychology
  29. Mihaly Csikszentmihaly
    • psychology professor
    • study of happiness and creativity
    • proposed the concept of flow, completely focused motivation
  30. Marc LeBlanc
    • Video game designer and educator
    • typology of experiential pleasure
  31. Michael Apter
    British psychologist who developed the reversal theory
  32. Roger Caillois
    Author of Man, Play, and Games
  33. Christopher Alexander
    An architect who has devoted his life to studying how places make us feel
Card Set
Game Design final
Final review for Game Design