A left ventricular pacing wire is placed in the coronary sinus in conjuntion with right ventricular pacing wire, this is called?
When obtaining pulmonayr view flow for the detection of diastolic dysfunction, this pulmonary vein should be used to obtain Doppler information?
Right superior vein
A VSD is also referred to as A?
Infundibular pulmonary stenosis is uncommon as an isolated lesion and is usually associated with?
M-mode finding in a patient with IHSS might include all of the following except:
A) mid sys closure of the aortic valve
B) Mitral valve prolaspe
C) sys anterior motion of the mitral valve
D) Asymmetric septal hypertrophy
In pt. with large pericardial effusions, which of the following can be a false positive dx on m-mode?
Mitral valve prolaspe is best seen in which echo view?
parasternal long axis
In laminar flow, mean velocity is?
Is equal to the max velocity
A shared problem is pts with constrictive pericarditis and those with cardiac tamponade is
Decreased cardiac output
The communication between the aorta & pulmonary artery that may presist after birth is called?
The most common tumor mass to cause mitral valve obstruction is?
Inhalation of Amyl Nitrite causes decrease in Preload or After load?
Premature opening of the pulmonary valve may be seen in?
The most common cardiac valvular tumor is?
An underestimation of the severity of aortic stenosis by continous wave doppler may occur with?
Low Cardiac output
The most common location for a true aneurysm to occur is in the ?
Gradual closure of the aortic valve suggesting decrease in cardiac output is often associated with which CMP?
Which of the following is not a possible M-mode finding in a pt with constrictive pericaditis?
A) Paradoxial septal motion
B) Pericardial thicking
C) Flattening of the mid diastolic post wall motion
D) Enlarged LV
Tricuspid Atresia blood flow will shunt from R-L atrial through a ?
Patent Forman Ovale
Small fibrous nodules located at the center of each aortic cusp is called?
Nodules of Art????
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is seen which what type of ASD?
Atrial myxomas are usually attached to the ?
Fossa ovalis region of the atrial septum
An Anomalie that is most likely associated with a Sinus Venous ASD?
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return
Adult chest wall echo problem generally operate in what frequency range?
2.5- 4.0 MHz
Pulmonic stenosis is often associated with ?
Tetrology of Fallot
What causes mitral valve pre-systolic closure?
left ventricular end diastolic pressure
Where on the EKG that correlates with venticular depoloration.
Right before the QRS
What causes MV preclosure?
10-20mmHg drop in arterial pressure during inspiration.
Classic finding of Cardiac Tamponade
A cardiac mass involving the superior and inferior portions of interaatrial septum is most likely?
Echo appearnace of Restrictive CMP?
LVH-- small or normal cavity
Percardial effusion may be present
Cardiac tamponade is rapid filling of fluid causing?
Restrictive diastolic filling
The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is called?
Coarctation of the aortic most often occur at the :
The best 2D view for eval a patient with suspected PDA is?
Short axis of the aorta
Which of the following is the most common etiology for a pt to develop a restrictive CMP?
A) endomyocardial fibrosis
If the IVE is dialted and doesnt collapse with the pt sniffs the RApressure is ext to be?
Which of the following is most often associated with Primum ASD's?
Cleft Mitral Valve
Infundibular pulmonary stenosis is uncommon as a isolated lesion and is usually associated with?
Pt. with IHSS and high rest flow gradient may be offered all of the following treatments except:
a) medical therpy
b) sub nitro
c) alcholo septal ablation
d) septal myectomy
Which of the following is true regarding the mitral doppler spectral trace in a pt with Restrictive/ Infiltrive CMP?
a) Shows E/A reversal
b) resemebles cadiac tamponade
c) diastolic functions is normal
d) resemble contricitive percaridtis
Resembles constictive percarditis
Pt. with IHSS and a high resting outflow gradient maybe offered which of the following?
a) liptor medical tx
b) contrast septal ablastion
c) sub nitrl
d) Surgical septal myectomy
Surgical septal myectomy
In aortic stenosis the pulse pressure is ?
What valve directs blood from the inferior vena cava to the foramen ovale during fetal circulation?
Which of the following occurs first in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation due to a flail leaflet?
What is a common symptom of a patient with endocarditis?
A loculated pericardial effusion is rare except for pt with?
Post op cardiac surgery
The sac that surrounds the heart is the?
While performing an echo on a premature baby what 2 findings are to be expected?
Patent foromen ovale
Which echocardiographic techinque is bet for the detection of MR?
Longstanding mitral stenosis leads to?
Left atrial enlargement
The QRS of the Echo reflects which of the following
a) Atrial depolazation
b) Atrial repo.
c) Vent deop
d) Vent repo
Afib is most commonly associated with which valvular dz?
The most common type of ASD is?
Kawasaki Diasease may lead to ?
Coronary Artery Aneurysm
A young pt is sent to the echo lab with a dx of kawaski dz, what would you look for?
Regional wall motion abnormailty
The most common location for a Pseudoaneruyms Is?
For patients with AS and Atrial fib , peak sys aortic velocity will be?
Higher R-R intervals
Pt with Downs Syndrom is most likely to have a common lesion?
AV septal defect
In pt with tricuspid atresisa blood flow will shunt form the R-L atrium through a ?
What is used in Echo to measure dP/dt?
The mitral valve doppler inflow shows a normal e/a wave. The Tissue doppler shows e/a reveral. The most accurate dx would be?
A Pisa calculation can not be preformed to determine the severity of the MR when this is present?
a) Tricuspid stenosis
b) Decreased cardiac output
c) LA enlargement
d) Mult jets
With a hypertrophic CMP you would see?
a) Left atrial volume overload
b) LA pressure overload
c) LV pressuer overload
d) LV volume overload
Left ventricular overload
Which type of MV abnormally often occurs when the heart muscle has been damaged by MI?
a) underdeveloped MV
b) Cleft MV
c) mitral regurg
d) Mitral stenosis
A finding of holodiastolic flow reversal in the descending aorta maybe a false positive of severe aortic regurgitation if the patient has?
What technique is used to reduce sidelobes ?
The most common area for a sinus of valsuva aneurysm is?
Left atrial thrombus is often seen in pt with?
Pt. with Ebsteins anomaly often have an associated congential abnormally?
What is a know compliction of bioprosthetic heart valve?
The normal mean left atrial pressure is comparable to?
Left vent diastolic
The velocity time integral measurment calculates?
In normal development what is the last to close?
The congenital cardiac anomaly seen most freguently in adults is?
Biscuspid Aortic Valve
The doppler jet of MS obtained at the apex is somtimes confused with?
An advantage of CW doppler to PW is?
Peak velocity detection
Know inlet location?
Subvalvular low near mitral and tricuspid valve
Which window is best for eval the ball excursion of a starr edwards MV using M-mode tech?
An ex of a Bioprosthetic cardial valve?
M-mode echo demonstration of mid-systolic closure of the pulmonary valve along with a decreased "a" wave is most consistent with?
The right vent can be measured from the m-mode of the LV during this part of the cardial cycle?
Pt. with a higher than normal heart rate may cause the doppler signal of the LV inflow to:
Have a single E/A wave velocity
Which two dimensional echo view is best for the assessment of the interatrial septum?
Subcostal 4 chamber
What is the number and location of the papilllary muscles of a normal mitral valve?
2-- posteromedial, anterolatera
A pt with LA myxoma may have symptoms similar to those pt having
Myocardial blood flow is most predominate during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
In constictive pericardities does the E wave increase or decrease with inspiration?
In normal pt why does the peak velocity of flow in the pulmonary artery occur later than the peak velocity in the Aorta?
Vascular resistence if lower
Tricuspid valve closure normally occurs?
less than 0.06 seconds after the mitral valve
Which m-mode finding is considered to be a specific indicator of a fensestrated aortic valve?
Diastolic flutter of the aortic valve
What 2D views are best for imaging of a discete subaortic membrane?
Subcostal long axis
Apical 4 chamber
In pt with IHSS , they will display
Which term is used to describe a segment of ventricular wall that exhibits no motion?
Which echo window is used in the detection assessment of the IVC?
In order to record the vegetation of endocarditis by echo, the vegetation must have a diameter of at least?
A true aneusysm of the LV can usually be distinguised from a pseudoaneurysm because?
has a smaller narrow neck than an true
Which type of CMP is associated with amyloidosis?
Carcinoid heart dz, the cardiac songrapher must devote special attention to identifiying abnormal finding of the?
Mitral regurg results in Preload or afterload
In AS the LV sys pressure exceeds that of the aorta
Myocardial blood flow in the normal heart returns to the RA vis the?
The coronary arteries mainly fill during?
What congential abnormality best describes the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle refers to:
D transpostion of the great vessels
A pt. presents to the ER with a MI and new systolic murmur . The most common reason for the murmur is?
Papillary muscle dysfunction
A mitral vavle "e" velocity of greater than ___ ma indicte severe MR
What is considered a increase risk factor for ischemic hearat dz?
In Marfan Syndrom why does aortic dissection and MVP occur?
Premature closure of the aortic valve on m-mode is most consistent with?
MR in patients with Rheumatic mitral stenosis is most likely due to ?
Left atrial enlargement
Which cardiac chamber is most likely to be involved with metatatic tumor?
When Starr-Edward prosthetic valves are located in both the mitral and aortic postions, mitral regurgitation is best detected from which window?
The heart reponds to increased in preload by increase in ?
What is the primary effect of long standing aortic regurgitation?
Decreased ejection fraction
Dp/dt measurement of MR assess what?
LV sys function
Coarctation of the aorta is associated with?
Biscuspid Aortic valve
The majority of organisms attach to the _____ side of the antrioventricualar valve?
The pressure 1/2 time of the MV can be inaccurate when which of the following anbormalites are present?
D) Aortic insuff
Rheumatic mitral stenosis with an ASD best describes?
In differentiating MR and LVOT doppler tracing th following should be considered?
MR duration is longer than LVOT outflow
The tricuspid regurg murmur may increase with inspiration . This known is?
Fine fluttering of the AMVL suggest?
A MI that extends through all the layers of the heart is known as?
What % of patients with Marfan's syndrom have MVP?
A CW 1/2 time (aortic) of 175 sec . This indicates what degree of aortic regurg
The most common typer of VSD?
A shunt from a PDA will be noted from the ?
Aorta pulmonary artery
High risk patient for infiltrive endocarditis include those with?
IV drug use
A left ventricular thrombus is usally in a area of ?
Abnorma wall motion
What is the best echo techinque for revealing hibernating or stunnd myocardium?
Mitral stenosis murmur?
Diastolic rumble with an opening snap
The atrial septal defect that affects the upper portion of the interatrial septum is?
Isovolumetric timing with ECG
R wave contraction
T wave relaxation
When measuring 2D measurements end diastolic is defined as?
Onset of the QRS
What CMP is caused by genetics?
The valve located at the ostium of the IVE is?
A VSD defect is noted on the apical 4chamber view near the apex. This typer of defect is referred to as an?
The left main coronary artery divides into the ?
A common ele abnormality seen in pt with a dilated CMP?
The tricuspid regurgitation murmur may increase with inspiration. This is know?
Which valve opens during ventricular systole?
Name 4 m-mode finding asso with Mitral Stenosis
Decrease e-f slope
Decrease E wave amplitude
Mult reverblant echo
Ant displacemnt of the PMVL
Pt with severe pulmonic stenosis may have an "A" wave measurment on the pulmonic valve m-mode tracing greater than ?