13.3 The Spread of the Protestant Reformation: Lutheranism in ScandinaviaI. The Zwinglian Reformatio

  1. 1397: Lutheranism in Scandinavia
    • a.      Union of Kalmar brought unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into just Denmark, but wasn’t socially or politically successful due to nobles opposing centralization
  2. 16th
    •                                                               i.      union about to break
    • 1.      1520: Christian II of Denmark, ruler of three kingdoms, was overthrown by Swedish barons led by Gustavus Vasa, who later became king of a freed Sweden and led Lutheran Reformation in his country
    • a.      1530s: Swedish Lutheran National Church created
  3. Christian IIand Frederick I
    •                                                               i.      also deposed as king of Denmark by Danish nobles and succeeded by uncle, Frederick I
    •                                                             ii.      Frederick I
    • 1.      Encouraged spread of Lutheran doctrines and introduction of Lutheran liturgy to Danish church service
    • 2.      Succeeded by Christian III, who installed a Lutheran state church with king as supreme authority
    • a.      Also spreaded Lutheranism to nOrway
  4. 1540s
    •                                                               i.      Scandinavia a Lutheran stronghold; monarchs dominant in establishing state-run churches
  5. The Zwinglian Reformation
    •  
    • a.      Swiss Confederation: loose association of 13 self-governing states called cantons
    •                                                               i.      Theoretically part of Holy Roman empire, but independent in 1499
    • 1.      6 forest cantons were democratic republics, while the seven urban cantons were governed by city councils controlled by oligarchies of wealthy citizens

  6. Ulrich Zwingli
    • Product of Swiss forest cantons
    •                                                               i.      Bachelor and masters degree; strongly influenced by Christian humanism and ordained in 1506
    • 1.      Accepted parish post in rural Switzerland until appointment as cathedral priest in the Great Minster of Zurich in 1518        
  7. Refromation in Switzerland
    • Zwingli began reformation in Switzerland
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Preaching of the Gospel caused unrest and caused city council to dispute in town hall
    • 1.      Disputation became standard method of spreading Reformation
    • a.      Advantage to reformers, since they had power of new ideas nad Catholics not used to defending their teachings
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Zwingli’s party was Victorious
  8. Reforms in Zurich
    •                                                               i.      Evangelical reforms promulgated in Zurich by city council strongly influenced by Zwingli, who looked to state for church supervision
    • 1.      Relics and images abolished; paintings and decorations removed from churches and replaced by white walls
    • 2.      Mass replaced by new liturgy of Scripture, prayer, and sermons, no music
    • 3.      Abolishment of monasticism, pilgrimages, veneration of saints, clerical celibacy, and the pope’s authority
  9. Zwingli reforms vs. political problem
    • a.      Zwingli’s reform encountered political problem due to forest cantons remaining Catholic
    •                                                               i.      He feared they’d ally with Habsburgs and attempted to build a league of evangelical cities by seeking an agreement with Luther and German reformers
    • 1.      It seemed possible since already a fusion of Luther and Zwingli movements made by Martin Bucer
    • 2.      Both German and Swiss reformers realized need for unity to defend against imperial and conservative opposition
  10. Landgrave Philip of Hesse
    •                                                               i.      Protestant political leaders, especially Landgrave Philip of Hesse, feared that Charles V would take advantage of division between reformers and attempted to promote an alliance of Swiss and German reformed churches by persuading the learders of both groups to attend a colloquy at Marburg to resolve their differences
  11. colloquy at Marburg
    • 1.      Agreed on all except interpretation of Lord’s Supper
    • a.      Zwingli: body and blood symbol meal of rememberance
    • b.      Luther: real presence of body and blood
    • 2.      Marburg Colloquy of 1529 produced no agreement and no evangelical alliance
  12. October 1531:
    •                                                               i.      war between Swiss protestants and Catholic cantons
    • 1.      Zurich’s army routed
    • 2.      Zwingli wounded, killed, cut up, burned, and ashes scattered
    • a.      Swiss civil war of 1531
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Foreshadowed violence of inability to find peaceful ways to agree on Gospel meaningsà violence and decision by force
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13.3 The Spread of the Protestant Reformation: Lutheranism in ScandinaviaI. The Zwinglian Reformatio
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