13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany: Organizing the Church

  1. Fate of Luther’s movement
    • a.      Fate of Luther’s movement tied to politics
    •                                                               i.      1519: Charles I, king of Spain and grandson to Maximilian, elected as Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V
  2. Charles V
    • 1.      Ruled immense empire, consisting of Spain and overseas possessions, Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, Low Countries, Naples in s. Italy and wanted to keep it that way
    • a.      Hoped to preserve unity of Catholic faith throughout empire, but empire overextended
    • b.      Spent lifetime pursuing goals despite four problems
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      French
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Papacy
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Turks
    •                                                                                                                                   iv.      Germany’s internal situation
    • c.       His problems gave Luther’s movement time to grow and organize before facing catholic forces
  3. Charles V main political concern
    • a.      Charles V’s main political concern was rivalry with Valois king of France, Francis I, who was encircled by possessions of Habsburg empire and led to conflicts with Charles of disputed territories in France, Netherlands, Rhineland, n. Spain, and Italy
    •                                                               i.      Habsburg-Valois Wars (24 years), diverting attention away from Lutheran problem
  4. Charles V TWo Enemies
    • Habsburg emperor expected papal cooperation in dealing with Lutheran heresy
    • Ottoman Empire in east threatened Charles V
  5. Habsburg emperor
    •                                                               i.      expected papal cooperation in dealing with Lutheran heresy
    • 1.      Papal policy was guided politically, not religiously, indicating that a pope could act against religious interests because of political situation
    • a.      Fearful of Charles’ power in  Italy, Pope Clement VII joined Francis I in second Habsburg-Valois War= catastrophe
  6. Habsburg-Valois War= catrastrophe
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      (April 1527) Spanish-imperial army of Charles V went berserk while attacking Rome and gave capital of Catholicism a fearful and bloody sacking
    • 1.      Clement came to terms with emperorà Charles V supreme
  7. Ottoman Empire
    • 1.      They overran Constantinople and established control over the Balkans
    • 2.      Taken control of much of north African coast and captured Christian island of Rhodes
  8. Leader Suleiman the Magnificent
    • a.      led Ottomans to defeat and kill King Louis of Hungary at the Battle of Mohacs I 1526
    • 2.      Overran Hungary, moved into Austria, and went to Vienna, were they were stopped in 1529

  9. a.      German Politics
    •                                                               i.      1529: Charles ready to deal with Germany due to end of second Habsburg-Valois war
    • 1.      Turks for now defeated and pope subdued
    • 2.      Internal politics not in his favor
    • a.      Several territorial states: ecclesiastical, princely, imperial
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Despite loyalty to emperor, the states became independent of imperial authority and didn’t want emperor
  10. Charles attempts
    Tried to settle Lutheran problem at Diet of Augsburg in 1530= FAIL

    •                                                               i.      He demanded their return to the Catholic Church by Apr 15, 1531
    • 1.      Led to development of defensive alliance called Schmalkaldic League
    • a.      Vowed to help each other out
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Religion= divided
  11. Renewed threat of Turks
    • Renewed threat of Turks against caused Charles to seek compromise with Protestant authorities
    •                                                               i.      1532-35: had to fight off Ottoman, Arab, and barbary attack
    • 1.      Two more Habsburg-valois wars until peace with Francis in 1544 and Turks in 1545
  12. Fifteen years after Diet of Augsburg
    • a.      he was free to resolve Germany problem
    • b.      Luther’s death in 1546 led to death of hope for peaceful compromise
    •                                                               i.      Charles brought army of German, Dutch, Italian, and Spanish troops to battle Protestants
    • 1.      Schmalkaldic Wars: emperor defeats Lutherans at Battle of Muhlberg and was at height of power
  13. Schmalkaldic League
    • a.      Was reestablished and German Protestant princes allied with French king, Henry II to revive the war in 1552.
    •                                                               i.      Charles forced to come to truce
    • 1.      He abandoned German affairs to his brother Ferdinand, abdicated all of his titles in 1556, and retired
  14. End to religious warfare
    • a.      in 1555
    •                                                               i.      Peace of Augsburg: turning point
    •                                                             ii.      Division of Christianity acknowledged, with Lutheranism being equal with Catholicism
    • 1.      Accepted right of each German ruler to determine relgion of subjects
    • a.      Killed charle’s hope for unity, as well as lost medieval Christian unity ideal
Card Set
13.2 Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany: Organizing the Church