1. 1. Why are amphibians especially good biological indicators of environmental conditions?
    ANSWER: they live in both terrestrial and aquatic environments
  2. 2. Which statement about Ecology is false?-
    ANSWER: All of the above statements are true, none is false
    It describes how organisms affect the environment-It describes how the environment affects organisms-It is a scientific study
  3. 3. Suppose you were examining whether a synthetic chemical reduced the growth rate of mice. Which of the following measures would you take to ensure that the experiment was a controlled experiment.
    ANSWER: excluding one group of mice from exposure to the chemical, but otherwise treating all mice in the same manner
  4. 4. West Nile Virus is transmitted primarily byANSWER:
  5. 5. Which of the following is not likely to be true of an ecological community?
    A. Resources for an organism are unlimitedB. Organisms are not limited by their abiotic or biotic environmentsANSWER: A and B
  6. 8. Which of the following is an abiotic feature of the environment? (biotic vs. abiotic features)-
    -The average minimum temperature at night-The number of days during which at least 1 mm of rain falls-The pH of the soils
  7. 9. A group of individuals of a single species of swamp sparrows lives in the Quabbin Resivoir in Massachusetts, and their individuals interact with one another. This is an example of a(n)
    ANSWER: population
  8. 10. Which of the following statements about the term “ecology” is true? -
    Ecology involves the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment-Ecology involves the scientific study of interactions that determine the distribution/abundance of organismsANSWER: A and B
  9. 11. Which of the following statements about the movement of energy through ecosystems is true?
    ANSWER: Energy can move in one direction only and cannot recycled
  10. 13. Which of the following statements is/are not true of biomes?
    ANSWER: Biomes are defined by the largest vertebrates that live in them
  11. 14. Which of the following areas on Each receives the most precipitation on average
    ANSWER: equatorial regions
  12. 15. Compared with land at the same latitude, ocean waters tend to be __________ in the winter and _______ in the summer because water has a ________ heat capacity than land has,
    ANSWER: warmer; colder; higher
  13. 16. A very productive ecosystem in the open ocean would most likely be found in?
    ANSWER: upwelling zones
  14. 17. Which of the following statements about oceanic currents is false?
    ANSWER: Because they move so slowly, oceanic currents contribute little to exchance of heat between the tropics and polar regions
  15. 18. Deforestation in the tropics should result in a(n) _______ in the land’s ability to reflect solar energy and _______ latent heat transfer.
    ANSWER: increase; decrease
  16. 19. Which of the following statements about ice is true? (know the properties of ice).-It is less dense than liquid water-It has a higher albedo than open water has-Ice for motion at the surface of ponds prevents warming of the waters below
    ANSWER: All of the above
  17. 20. On what time scale does the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occur?
    ANSWER: between 2 and 10 years
  18. 21. Which of the following is a major cause of the periodic glacial advances and retreats that have occurred over the last two million years?
    ANSWER: periodic changes of Earth’s orbit from circular to more elliptical
  19. 22. On what time scale do Milankovitch cycles occur?
    ANSWER: 20,000 and 200,000 years
  20. 23. In which aquatic ecosystems are oxygen concentrations in the water is usually highest?
    ANSWER: Rapidly running rivers
  21. 24. Trees that routinely drop their leaves
    during cold or dry periods are referred to as:
    ANSWER: deciduous
  22. 25. Which of the following statements about terrestrial biomes is true?
    ANSWE: The same biome can be found on different continents
  23. 26. When heterotrophs consume food (organic compounds), they convert it to usable chemical energy, primarily in the form of the high energy compound _______.
  24. 27. In terrestrial plants, the closing of stomates to reduce water loss when water is scarce has at least one trade-off: Photosynthesis is limited due to ________.
    ANSWER: limited CO2 uptake
  25. Cells
  26. 29. What do chemosynthesis and photosynthesis have in common? (quiz question)-
    They both result in the storage of energy in carbon-carbon bonds-They both fix carbonANSWER: Both A and B
  27. 30. Organisms that can convert energy from sunlight or from inorganic compounds in their environment, without having to consume other organisms for their energy needs, are called:
    ANSWER: autotrophs
  28. 31. Which of the following are not heterotrophs? (quiz question)
    ANSWER: Chemosynthetic archaea synthesizing carbohydrates
  29. 33. Flowing streams and rivers are called ________ systems.
    ANSWER: lotic
  30. 34. Which of the following are only found in the photic zone?
    ANSWER: phytoplankton
  31. 36. Compared to zones below it, temperatures in the marine photic zone are generally _______ and water pressure is ________.
    ANSWER: higher, lower
  32. 37. The coldest part of a large lake is usually in the ___________ zone.
    ANSWER: benthic
  33. 39. Which of the following statements about stem succulence is true?-
    ANSWER All of the above are true, none is false
    It is an adaptation for living in areas with low water availability -It is found in plants in the deserts of the Eastern Hemisphere-It is found in plants in the deserts of the Western Hemisphere-It enables plants to store water
  34. 40. Though it contains only 11% of Earth’s terrestrial vegetation cover, the _______ biome is home to about half the Earth’s species
    .ANSWER: tropical rainforest
  35. 41. Which of the following statements about temperate grasslands is true?
    -The soils of grasslands typically accumulate rich organic materials-Grasslands are one of the most human-influenced biomes on EarthANSWER: Both A and B
  36. 42. When you touch something hot, your hand becomes warm; this is an example of the transfer of _________ energy.
    ANSWER: kinetic
  37. 43. If the temperature of a plant is 10 degrees C and the ambient temperature is 14 degrees C, there will be a net input of heat to the plant via
    :-Conduction-ConvectionANSWER: Both A and B
  38. 44. Which of the following types of heat transfer is much more common in plants than in animals?
    ANSWER: Evaporative heat loss
  39. 45. The condition known as pubescence, which refers to the presence of hair on the surface of leaves does what
    ANSWER: lowers the absorption of solar radiation
  40. 46. Consider a plant that is transpiring. Water will move from the highest water potential (least negative) in the _______ to the lowest water potential in the _________.
    ANSWER: surrounding soil, leaves
  41. 47. Which of the following statements about adaptations is true?
    ANSWER: Genetic variation within a population is a requirement for the evolution of adaptations
  42. 48. On a warm day, a dog pants and some of the water on its tongue evaporates. This evaporation has a _______ effect that is caused by _______.
    ANSWER: cooling; latent heat transfer
  43. 50. Which of the following is the correct term for the energy associated with dissolved solutes?
    ANSWER: osmotic potential
  44. 51. In the canopies of tropical forests, plants are able to survive despite the high temperatures and high levels of solar radiation due to the process of:
    ANSWER: (evapo)transpiration
  45. 52. The zone of turbulent flow close to the surface of an object is referred to as a ______ layer.
    ANSWER: boundary
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