Biology Comp Final 2

  1. Species X reproduces asexually by fission and species Y reproduces sexually. Consider that all other relevant characteristics are similar between these species. When the environment gradually changes, then 

    C. species Y should have a better chance of surviving than species X.
  2. which statement below lists the correct steps for binary fission? 
    A. 1. attachment of chromosome to the plasma membrane, 2. enlargement of cell volume, 3. DNA replication occurs, 4. cell elongates and chromosomes are pulled apart, 5. a new cell wall and plamsa membrane divide the cell in half.
    Sorry, that is the correct answer, wasn't gong to type all that out! :)
  3. the overall function of meiosis includes all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. growth of the overall individual.
  4. The region that contains the genetic information in a bacterial cell is called the

    E nucleoprotein
    A. nucleoid
  5. The function of mitosis is:

    D all of the above
  6. The critical checkpoints that control the cell cycle are the:

    B G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage
  7. Eukaryotic chromosomes

    D all the above
  8. which statement below best describes the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis?
    A mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle that divides the nuclear material while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm
    B mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle that divides the cytoplasm while cytokinesis divides the nuclear material.
    A  mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle that divides the nuclear material while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm
  9. Which stage is most associated with a cell that is unalbe to divide again, such as a muscle or nerve cell?

    E Go phase
  10. another name for a tetrad is a

    B bivalent
  11. source of genetic variation in a sexually reproducing population includes which of the following?

    D all of the above
  12. Which of the following is NOT true about cancer cells?

    C they exhibit contract inhibition
  13. Which of the following statements is true about the life cycle of animals?

    C the gametes are the haploid phase of the animals life cycle
  14. All of the following are true concerning Down Syndrom EXCEPT
    A it is caused by autosomal trisomy 21
    B in 23% of cases, the sperm contributes the extra chromosome
    C it is the most common trisomy in humans
    D chances of a woman having a child with Down Syndrom decreases with her age.
    D chances of a woman having a child with Down Syndrom decreases with her age.
  15. During what phase of meiosis does crossing-over occur?

    B prophase I of meiosis I
  16. Which of the following is/are true about sexual reproduction? (biology)?
    1. at the cellular level is the opposite of reproduction since it involves two cells fusing to become one.
    2. it may require the development of organs such as the uterus, which are advantageous to the species
    3. it regularly produces a wider array of adaptations to the external envireonment in a shorter period of time
    4it regularly produces a wider array of adaptations to the internal environment(disease agents, parasites) in a shorter period of time
    5 all of the above
    5 all of the above
  17. In some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokineses. This results in:

    A a multinucleated cell
  18. What occurs in anaphase?
    A Chromosomes move to opposite poles
    B Chromosomes line up along the equator of the dividing cell.
    A Chromosomes move to opposite poles
  19. Which sequence of stages in mitosis is correct?
    A prophase, telophase, anaphase, prmetaphase, metaphase
    B prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
    B prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  20. If a sperm cell contains 8 chromosomes, it comes from an animal that has ___ chromosomes.

    E 16
  21. To what does the term chiasma refer?

    D the structure that holds together homologues during crossing over
  22. Interphase:

    D all of the above
  23. Before the time of gregor Mendel and genetics, sexual reproduction was thought to produce a blending or equal mixing of the parents traits, today we know that...

    C) offspring inherit essentially 50% of their genes from each parent, but 2 sibling offspring may share with eachother from 0-23 chromosomes in common from each parent, and further variation may occur due to crossing over.
  24. Cancer cells require many nutrients, which are supplied by blood vessels. The growth of new blood vessels to cancerous tissue is called:

    C angiogenesis
  25. During ____ the homologous chromsome pairs separate in a random fashion leading to genetic diversity among the offspring.

    C independent assortment
  26. Oncogenes are all of the following EXCEPT:

    A tumor suppressor genes
  27. What is the importance of crossing-over:
    A it provides extra genetic material for the daughter cells.
    B it increases the likelihood that daughter cells contain different genetic material.
    B it increases the likelihood that daughter cells contain different genetic material.
  28. Which statement is NOT true about mitosis?

    D. Mitosis uses a 2n parent cell to form daughter cells containing n chromosomes
  29. If the diploid number of chromosomes for an organism is 52, what will the haploid number of chromosomes be?

    D 26
  30. Why do polar bodies form?
    A They allow a reduction in chromosomes while preserving most of the cytoplasm for one egg.
    B This is extra chromosomal material representing the X chromosome in each female cell.
    A They allow a reduction in chromosomes while preserving most of the cytoplasm for one egg.
  31. If a parent cell has 48 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after mitosis and cytokinesis occurs?

    C 48 chromosomes
  32. Interkinesis is different from interphase in which way?

    C interphase involves DNA replication and interkinesis does not
  33. The polar body is

    B a nonfunctional cell rudiment formed at the same time as an egg cell
  34. Which of the following is NOT true concerning mitosis?

    D Animal cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis while plant cells do not.
  35. The event that signals the start of anaphase is

    A division of the centromeres to separate sister chromatids
  36. Which of the following events occurs during prophase I but does not occur during prophase of mitosis?

    C crossing over
  37. What codes for proteins that promote the normal cell cycle and prevents apoptosis?

    B proto-oncogenes
  38. The haploid (n) number of chromsomes for a human being is

    A 23
  39. Which does NOT occur in telophase?

    B the centromeres split apart
  40. Scientists have created genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by isolating and then transferring the?jellyfish gene for green fluorescent protein into pigs, bacteria, plants and mice. The result was bioluminescent organisms! These experiments demonstrate that:

    D) genes have no difficulty crossing the species barrier
  41. During DNA replication, the enzyme _____, catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by adding, to the 3' end of the previous nucleotide, new nucleotides that are complementary to a DNA template.

    A DNA polymerase
  42. An unknown chemical is analyzed and found to contain the bases thymine and quanine. This chemical is most like?
    a) tRNA
    b) mRNA
    c) DNA
    d) rRNA
    C DNA
  43. In transcriptional control in eukaryotic cells

    D all of the above
  44. The F2 offspring of a classic Mendelian monohybrid cross between homozygous dominant andhomozygous recessive parents would produce the genotype(s)

    E. AA, Aa, and aa.
  45. In a classic Mendelian monohybrid cross between a homozygous dominant parent and ahomozygous recessive parent, which generation is always completely heterozygous?
    A. F1 generation
    B. F2 generation
    C. F3 generation
    D. P generation
    A F1 generation
  46. Which of the following structures is not part of an operon?

    E all of the above
  47. Codons:

    D all of the above
  48. A (an) ____ is a group of three bases on tRNA that is complementary to a specific mRNA codon.

    C anticodon
  49. the reason why some individuals who inherit polydactyly (having an extra digit on the hand or feet) but do not express the trait is due to ____.

    B incomplete penetrance
  50. If a woman is a carrier for the color-blind recessive allele and her husband is normal, what aretheir chances that a son will be color-blind?

    C. 50% since the mother is the only carrier.
  51. If the parents are AO and BO genotypes for the ABO blood group, their children could includewhich of the following genotypes?

    D. AO, BO, AB, and OO only
  52. If individuals exhibiting a dominant phenotype are crossed and produce only offspring with thedominant phenotype, what would be the logical genotype of the parents?

    D. two of the options may be correct
  53. Which of the following statements about DNA replication is NOT correct?

    D. Replication occurs as each base is paired with another exactly like it.
  54. _________ control is the level of genetic control that involves the processing of early RNA transcripts to?mRNA and the rate at which mRNA leaves the nucleus.
    A) Feedback control
    B) Translational control
    C) Transcriptional control
    D) Posttranscriptional control
    E) Posttranslational control
    B translational control
  55. Which of the following crosses would always result in offspring that only display the dominantphenotype?

    A. two of the crosses will always display the dominant phenotype
  56. What aspect of Mendel's background gave him the necessary tools to discover the laws ofinheritance?

    A. He had studied mathematics and probability.
  57. What is the blending theory of inheritance?

    D. an old theory that said that offspring show traits intermediate between those of the parents
  58. Which characteristic of pea plants were important in their selection as Mendel's researchorganism?

    E. All of the above were important characteristics in Mendel'sselection.
  59. If a pea plant shows a recessive phenotype,

    C. the genotype can only be tt.
  60. What are alleles?

    D. alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue eyes or brown eyes
  61. If an individual with a dominant phenotype is crossed with an individual with a recessivephenotype, 4 of their 9 offspring show the recessive phenotype. What is the genotype of the firstparent?

    D. Aa
  62. Lethal genes (genes that result in the failure to develop a vital organ or metabolic pathway) arenearly always recessive. Animal breeders who discover a unique trait and selectively breed toincrease the occurrence of that trait often encounter a noticeable increase in lethal genes. Why?

    C. The selective-mating of closely related individuals, or inbreeding, increases chances that two recessive genes will "meet" in offspring.
  63. In 1940, two researchers named Weiner and Landsteiner discovered that about 85 percent of thehuman population sampled possessed a blood cell protein that had been previously detected inRhesus monkeys. This blood type was labeled Rh positive, and Rh+ was found to be dominantover the absence of the blood factor (Rh). Under normal Mendelian inheritance, which of thefollowing statements is FALSE?

    B. Two Rh- parents could have an Rh+ child.
  64. In what kind of classic Mendelian cross would you expect to find a ratio of 9:3:3:1 among the F2offspring?

    B. dihybrid cross
  65. A testcross involves an individual exhibiting the dominant phenotype but an unknown genotypebeing crossed with an individual that has a(n) ___________ genotype.

    A. homozygous recessive
  66. Which section of the pre-mRNA contains the protein coding regions?

    A exons
  67. Which of the following processes does NOT take place during translation?

    A production of mRNA
  68. The correct sequence of events in translation is:
    A initiation, termination, elongation
    B initiation, elongation, termination
    B initiation, elongation, termination
  69. Which of the following statements concerning ribosomes are true?

    E. All of the above statements are true.
  70. DNA was shown to be the transforming substance when only the _______ enzymes could inhibit transformation.

    D DNAase
  71. In the lac operon, if lactose is present, which of the following occurs?
    A lactose binds to the repressor, changing its shape so that it can bind to the operator and the structural genes are not expressed.
    B Lactose binds to the repressor, changing its shape so that it does not bind to the operator. RNA polymerase then transcribes the needed genes.
    B Lactose binds to the repressor, changing its shape so that it does not bind to the operator. RNA polymerase then transcribes the needed genes.
  72. A change in a regulatory gene

    D can increase or decrease the expression of a structural gene.
  73. DNA replication is considered semiconservative because:

    B it uses the original strand as a template for replication
  74. Transformation of bacteria was shown to occur when _______ bacteria were injected into miceand the mice ______.
    A. live S strain; died
    B. live R strain; didn't die
    C. live S and R strain; died
    D. live R strain and dead S strain; died
    E. live S strain and dead R strain; didn't die
    D live R strain and dead S strain; died
  75. Which statement is NOT correct about the trp operon?
    A) The structural genes make products that are part of an anabolic pathway for the synthesis of tryptophan
    .B) It is normally turned off if tryptophan is present.
    C) Tryptophan acts as the corepressor.
    D) The regulator gene product is inactive by itself.
    E)Tryptophan binds to the repressor protein and inactivates it.
    E)Tryptophan binds to the repressor protein and inactivates it.
  76. The first codon to be deciphered was _____, which codes for _______.

    C. UUU, phenylalanine
  77. If one strand of DNA has the base sequence AAGCAA, the complementary strand has which ofthe following sequences?

  78. The DNA of a _____ is wrapped around histone molecules to form a "beaded string"

    B eukaryote
  79. If black fur is produced by a recessive allele, which genotype is most likely to produce a black individual?

    B bb
  80. Which is NOT true about the genetic code?

    C Most amino acids have only one codon
  81. In the Watson and Crick model of DNA, the "step" of the ladder are composed of 

    D a purine and a pyrimidine
  82. The universal regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes for controlling gene expression includes?

    A) All of these mechanisms are used; there is no single universal mechanism.
  83. Transcrition is initiated when:

    C RNA polymerase binds to a region of DNA called the promotor
  84. The X-ray diffraction photography of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins was critical evidence in the study of DNA,Question 34 answers

    A. indicating that DNA has a double helix structure.
  85. A barr body

    A is an inactive X chromosome that does not produce gene products
  86. Active genes in eukaryotic cells are associated with

    A euchromatin
  87. Which level of primary control in eukaryotic gene activity involves the lifespan of the mRNA molecule and the ability of mRNA to bind to ribosomes?
    a. feedback control.
    b. translational control
    c. transcriptional control
    d. posttranscriptional control
    e. posttranslational control
    e posttranslational control
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Biology Comp Final 2