Social Psychology Final Exam Study Guide

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  1. What are the types of aggression describe in your text and in class?
    • Hostile (Affective) Aggression: A behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is to make the victim suffer. (Individuals who participate in emotional aggression, then, are simply seeking to harm or injure the target of their attack) - for example, boxing. The goal is suffering for the victim.
    • Instrumental Aggression: A behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is not to make the victim suffer, but to attain a non-injurious goal. (An individual who participates in instrumental aggression, will harm or injure another as a way of obtaining various rewards such as control of a situatioon or improved self-esteem) - for example will be football. thegoal is "non-injurious" but the acts serve a different purpose.
    • Direct Aggression: An action or behavior that is clearly derived from the aggressor and is aimed directly at the target. Punching, pushing, yelling, and using insulting language.
    • Indirect Aggression: An action or behavior that is not clearly derived from the aggressor, and where it is not obvious to the target that he or she has been the victim of aggression. (Spreding rumors and gossiping, creating social isolation, or framing others for something they did not do).
  2. Describe these differentt vies of aggression.
    • Sigmund Freud: Aggression stems from a self-destructive impulse and that humans must act out that impulse in order to release negative energy and return state of calm. (Fight or Flight). Freud believed that aggression stems from a self-destructive impulse and that humans must act out that impulse in order to release negative nergy and return to a state of clam - a behavior Freud refers to as a "death drive". In Sigmund Freud’s view, from the moment of conception, we carry within us both an urge to create (eros) and an urge to destroy (thanatos).  The innate urge to destroy, or death instinct, is as natural as our need to breathe.
    • Konrad Lorenz: Through evalutaion humans developed a fighting instinct simlar to that found in animals. Aggression is unlearned and universal, but viewed the behavior from an evolutionary perspective. He believed that through evolution, humans developed afighting instinct simlar to that found in animals. Over the course of many years, our ancestors found that aggressive behavior beneeffited them as a method of gaining resources, eliminating competition, threatening rivals, and defending agianst assailants. According to instinct theory the natural need for aggression gets stronger over time. In Konrad Lorenz’s (1966) view, human beings are born with an instinct to fight. This instinct served both the individual need to survive and the survival of the species. With the ability to manufacture weapons this instinct changed and aggression became an evolutionary adaptation.
    • Leonard Berkowitz: Revised the furstration aggression theory; he fond that frustration produced anger, and anger could then lead to aggression, but did not neecessarily always do so. Leonard Berkowitz (1965) argued that cues within the immediate environment play a role in determining the kind of response that follows frustration. The mere presence of aggressive cues led to more aggressive behavior.
  3. The Groups Used in a Expirement
    • Contral Group: The group that does not get the main treatment in an experiment, but is used as a baseline to compare results with the experimental group.
    • Experimental Group: In an experiment, the group that gets the main treatment or manipulation.
  4. Frustration-Aggression Theory
    (Dollard et al., 1939) A theory stating that frustration precedes aggression because our motivation for aggression increases when our current behavior is interrupted or we are prevented from reaching a goal. Tend to be more aggresive with external cues.
  5. Excitation Transfer
    The process by which arousal from one stimulus, a scary movie or a roller coaster, can be transferred to the second stimulus, a person. Dutton and Aron (1974) in which male passerby were contacted by an attractive female interviewer either on a fear-arousing suspension bridge or a non-fear-arousing bridge. Dolph Zillmann (1983) proposed that excitement (or arousal) at one point in time can be transferred to aggression at another point in time. A good workout can produce physiological effects similar to aggression. If an incident occurs in close proximity in time to the workout, the physical effects can be transferred into aggression.
  6. Robert Zajonc's work on Mere Exposure
    (1968) Demonstrated that the frequency of exposure to nonsense or unknown words would affect the view’s positive or negative rating of that word. The experiment was initially done with Turkish words and then with Chinese ideographs. In each case, the more an individual saw a particular word the favorable the rating the word would receive. The experiment was also conducted with facial photographs with the same results.
  7. Theodore Mita and associates demonstrates
    Theodore Mita, Marshall Dermer, and Jeffrey Knight (1977) developed a rather unusual experiment - Individual test subjects and one friend were exposed to two photographic images of the test subject. One mirror image and one true image.
  8. Leon Festinger's work on Westgate West
    Researche on proximity. Leon Festinger, Stanley Schacter, and Kurt Back (1950): Studied how the physical layout of an apartment complex (Westgate West) affected the relationships that formed within the complex. Note - apartments were randomly assigned to subjects for the purposes of the experiment. Relationships were more likely to form with next door neighbors rather than those who lived two doors away. Individuals were even less likely to from a relationship with a neighbor who lived three doors away. Relationships were more likely to from on the same floor rather than on another floor. One additional finding discovered that those residents who live near stairs or mailboxes developed more friendships with people overall than those who did not live near one of these things.
  9. William Whyte work on Park Forest
    William Whyte (1956): conduct a similar experiment but he was able to use an entire community development called Park Forest. Friendships usually developed along and across streets with neighbors and those who live across the street. Rarely did friendships form with those who lived back to back (i.e. they shard a common fence).
  10. Social Exchange Theory as it relates to Mate Selection
    (Thibaut & Kelley, 1952, 1959) An economic modle of human behavior in which people make decisions based on maximizing benefits and minimizing coasts in relationships. People seek out and maintain those relationships in which the rewards exceed the costs. This theory suggests that behavior of socialized persons is purposive, or goal oriented, and not random. People repeat behaviors that are rewarded and avoid those that go unrewarded. If reciprocity does not exist (if nothing is received in return) a relationship will likely terminate.
  11. Fritz Heider: Balance Theory
    • People desire cognitive consistency or balance in their thoughts, feelings, and social relationships. The triangles that have a person (you), other, and an object. People desire 'cognitive consitency', we feel comfortable with others who share our attitudes (balance state). Then we feel uncofmfortable with others who don't share 'cognitive consitency'.
    • Balance: P - O /, O + Object _, P - Object .
    • Unbalanced: P - O /, O + Object _, P + Object .
    • Unbalanced, but it can change: P + O /, O + Object _, P - Object .
  12. Sigmund Freud and the Parental Image Theory
    • According to the Oedipus complex: the mother becomes the first love object for the male child. These feelings are eventually suppressed. By adolescence, when the male is free to fall in love, he selects a mate that possesses the qualities of his mother.
    • According to the Electra complex: the father becomes the first love object for the female child. These feelings are eventually suppressed. Eventually, the female adolescent seeks a mate with the qualities of her father.
  13. Triangular Theory of Love
    Robert Sternberg's (1986, 1997) theory that love is made of three components:Intimacy (feelings of closeness and connectedness), passion (physical attraction and sexual consummation), and commitment (both in the decision that one loves another and to maintain the love).
  14. Group selection
    Groups that have altruistic members may be more likely to survive than groups with only selfish members.
  15. Kin selection
    Is the tendency to help genetic relatives. Strongest when biological stakes are particularly high.
  16. Reciprocal altruism
    Helping someone else can be in your best interests. Increases the likelihood that you will be helped in return.
  17. Indirect reciprocity
    “I help you and somebody else helps me”
  18. Pluralistic ignorance
    When a person may privately think there may be an emergency, but seeing others do nothing leads him or her to infer that there is no need to provide help. (Altruistic)
  19. Diffusion of responsibility
    A decreased feeling of responsibility to help in a group; if an emergency arises in a group setting, it is less likely that any one person will help than if someone was witnessing the emergency alone, because being in a group decreases each person's feeling of personal responsibility to help. This process occurs when a bystander does not take action to help because other persons share the responsibility for intervening. This occurs at the third step in the process of deciding to help. If others are present, personal responsibility to act is diminished the number of others present.
  20. Bystander Effect
    Aphenomenon in which as more people are present, each individual is less likely to help. In Darley and Latane's 1968 study examining the bystander effect, particpants were exposed to the sounds of another student having an epilieptic seizure. These sounds made very clear what was happening and that help was needed. Participants who were alone were faster to report the emergency than those who believed they were in the company of  otheres-they were not actually able to see these others, but believed they were nearby.
  21. Cost-benefit analysis
    The act of weighing the relative costs and benefits of helping to deide whether or not to provide the help.
  22. What are the type of varibles.
  23. Samples are
    picking a small group from a large group.
  24. Mere Exposure
    The hypothesis that the mere repeated exposure of an individaul to a stiulus is enough for an increase in favorable response to that stimulus. Mere exposure (the effect created by close proximity). The more we come into contact with something, the more we will like it. Tends to be true, unless our first impression is a negative one
  25. Self prestation strategy
    • Ingratiation: A way of controlling others' impression of us through flattery. (kiss ass)
    • Sandbagging: 
    • Supplication: 
  26. Attribution
    Deciding who or what is responsible for the outcome of a situation; anothr way we cope with failure and respond to success in order to maintain self-esteem.
  27. Realistic group conflict
    The theory that conflict stems from competition for limited resources such as money, land, power, or other resources.
  28. Realistic group conflict theory
    The idea that when different groups are in competition for resources, they tend to close ranks, fovring ingroup members and discriminating against outgroup members.
  29. The rivalry between the Eagles and the Rattles
    Muzafer Sherif and his collegues waned to see whether it was possible to instill prejudice between two similar groups by developing group norms and values and then palcing the two groupsin competition with each other .
  30. Slef-fulfilling prophecy
    A prediction that causes itself to come true.
  31. Cognitive dissonance
    The anxiety that arises from acting in a way discordant with your attitudes. This anxiety is resolved by adjusting one's attitudes to be in line with the behavior.
  32. Robert Winch and the Complimentary Needs Theory
    People choose relationships in which their basic needs can be mutually satisfied. A careful distinction is made to stressthat point that these needs are complementary rather than similar. Social characteristics may be similar but needs are complementary.
  33. Albert Bandura
    Developed social learning theory, also referred to as social cognitive theory (1960s). Bandura's famous bobo doll study exhibited the power of modeling on aggression in children. In the study, a sample of preschool-aged children watched a video that showed an adult forcefully tossing, kicking, and punching an inflatable toy, which researchers referred to as a Bobo doll (a five-foot-tall doll with a weighted bottom that would pop back up when it was knocked down).
  34. The difference between altruism and egoism
    • Altruism: Having a selfless motivation for helping. Helps others witout thinking about yourself. Motivated by the desire to increase another’s welfare.Empathy-altruism model of prosocial behavior. We are more likely to help others’ whose welfare is threatened. This can occur even when there are great costs to the helping person. Some argue that there is no "true" self-less help, while others contend that this can occur.
    • Egoism: Having a selfish motivation for helping. Helps yours self feel better. Motivated by the desire to increase one’s own welfare. Egoism encourages helping because of a concern about the costs to one’s self if help is not provided. Egoism seeks to reduce personal distress. Egoism highlights the potential rewards for helping others.
  35. Correspondence Bias
    The tendency of people to make dispositional attributions for others' behavior.
  36. Correspondent inference thoery
    (Jones & Davids, 1965) The thoery that people base their inferences regarding the source of others' behaviors on wheter or not the behavior was freely chosen, if the consequences are distinctive, and if the behavior was socially desirable.
  37. Covariation Theory
    (Kelley, 1972; Kelley & Michela, 1980) The Theory that people  base their inferences regarding the source of others' behaviors on whether or not there is a consensus regarding the way one ought to respond, the distinctiveness of the response, and the consistency of the person's response across situations.
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Social Psychology Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Questions for Social Psychology
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