The structure that acts as a partial barrier between the epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue is:
Unicellular Exocrine Gland
The substance responsible for the waterproof quality of the skin and that helps prevent desiccation is
Smooth muscle is described as
Healing in which the edges of the wound are held in close apposition without the formation of granulation tissue or significant scarring is called:
What are the 4 primary types of tissue?
Functions of Epithelial Cells:
- 1. Protects, covers, and lines
- 2. Filters biochemical substances
- 3. Absorbs nutrients
- 4. Provides sensory input
- 5. Manufactures Secretions
- 6. Manufactures Excretions
4 General Characteristics of Epithelia:
- 1. Polar (have a sense of direction relative to surrounding structures)
- 2. Connected by junctional complexes
- 3. Lack blood cells or capillaries (avascular)
- 4. Most are INNERVATED and provide valuble sensory input
3 Types of Cellular Junctions:
1. Tight Junction (formed by fusion of the outermost layers, found in tissue that can have no leaks, ex: bladder)
2. Desmosome (formed by filaments that interlock with each other, found in tissues that undergo repeated episodes of tension/stretching, ex: skin, uterus, or heart)
3. Gab Junction (linked by tubular proteins, allows passage of ions and nutrients, ex: intestinal epithilial cells, smooth muscle tissue)
do not have ducts or tubules and its secretions are distributed throughout the body
ex: pituitary gland (brain) and adrenal gland (kidney)
have ducts and discharge secretions through them directly into nearby ducts
ex: sweat and salivary glands
glands package their secretions and release them via exocytosis as they are manufactured
glands store their secretions and then release the top part of the cell into the duct system
gland store their secretions and then release the entire contents of the cell
What is the difference between serous and mucous secretions?
Serous: watery and contain a high concentration of enzymes
Mucous: think and composed of glycoproteins
What are 3 major components of connective tissue?
- 1. Ground Substances
- 2. Fibers
- 3. Cells
fixed cell involved in the development of connective tissue
- "white fiber"
- -strong think strands of collogen
- -found in tendons and ligaments
- -thin, delecate branched networks of collegen
- -provide support for highly cellular organs
- "yellow fibers"
- -branched networks composed primarily of the protein elastin
- -occurs in tissues commonly subjected to stretching (vocal cords, lungs, skin)
Connective tissue is divided into what 2 main catagories?
Name and describe LOOSE connective tissues:
1. Ariolar- surrounds every organ, forms the sq layer, present in mm
2. Adipose-highly vascular, acts as an energy storehouse/thermal insulator
3. Reticular-forms the stroma(framework of several organs)
Name and descrive the DENSE connective tissues:
1. Dense Regular- white appearence, reletively avascular, can be found in FASCIA sheets that cover muscles
2. Dense Irregular- composed of collegen fibers arranged in thinck bundles, found in dermis of skin, forms the touch capsule of joints
3. Elastic- primarily composed of elastic fibers, found in spaces bt vertebrae and in areas of the body that require stretching
Describe the 3 types of Cartilage and where they might be found:
1. Hyaline Cartilage- found in joints and at the end of long bones
2. Elastic Cartilage- found in epiglottis of the larnx and in the pinae of ears of animals
3. Fibrocartilage- found in spaces bt vertebrae of the spine, between bones in the pelvic girdle and in the knee joint
Membranes are composed of what 2 tissue types?
Epithelial and Connective Tissues
Name the 4 types of membranes foudn in the body and give an example of each.
- 1. Mucous, ex: submucosa
- 2. Serous, ex: peritonia
- 3. Curaneous, ex: "skin"
- 4. Synovial, ex: synovial fluid fills the joint spaces
What is effusion?
excess fluid that has escaped into a body cavity to the detriment of normal body function
What is ascites?
accumulation of fluid in the abdomin
Name the 3 types of muscles and define each of them:
- 1. Skeletal- straited and voluntary
- 2. Smooth- nonstraited and involuntary
- 3. Caridac- straited and involuntary
Name the 2 types of cells that make up neural tissue?
- 1. Neurons
- 2. Supporting Neuroglial cells
The body's initial response to injury is:
What is granulation tissue?
tissue that forms beneath the overlying blood clot or scab
What is proud flesh?
when granulation tissue becomes too think and stands out over the epithelial layer
Descrive 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Intention wound healing:
1st Intention: edges of wound held in close apposition, no significant granulation tissue or scaring
2nd Intention: edges of wound separated from each other, granulation tissue forms to close gap, scaring occurs
3rd Intention: contaminated wound left open until contamidation is removed, clean out THEN pull skin together