bio 21

  1. What does schizophrenia mean? (2)
    -"splitting of psychic functions"

    -disorder most commonly associated by madness
  2. SCHIZO  stats
    -tends to present itself during teengae years or during  young adulthood

    • -more common in males then females
    • *its more severe in men then women
  3. Positive symptoms
    prescence of abnormal behavior
  4. 5 Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
    • - thought disorder
    • *disorganized and irrational thinking and speech



    -innapropriate effect

    -odd behavior
  5. (schizo)(positive symptoms) Thought disorders (4)
    -illogical thinking

    • -echolalia
    • *repeating vocalizations of anohter person

    -peculiar associations among ideas

    -belief in supernatural forces
  6. (schizo)(positive symptoms) Delusions (1) (3)
    **unjustifiable beliefs

    • -being controlled
    • *ex: maritians are controlling me

    • -persecutions
    • *ex: im being followed by CIA

    • -grandeur
    • *ex: M.J admires my sneakers
  7. (schizo)(positive symptoms) Hallucinations (1) (2)
    **perception of stimuli that are not actually present

    -most often auditory

    -can also involve other senses such as vision and olfaction
  8. (schizo)(positive symptoms) Odd behavior (2)
    • -long periods of no movement
    • *catatonia 

    -they show irregular eye movement
  9. (schizo) Negative symptoms
    absence of normal behavior
  10. 5 negative symptoms of schizo
    -flattened emotional responding

    -poverty of speech

    -lack of initiative and persistence


    -social withdrawal
  11. (schizo)(positive symptoms) Inappropriate affect
    *failure to react with an appropriate level of emotionality to postive or negative events

    ***this is tested in a pre-pulse inhibition test
  12. Pre-pulse experiement
    • in normal individuals, response to pulse is inhibited by cue. This effect of the cue is not present in schizo
    • **indicates inappropriate effect
  13. Schizo and Genetics
    -risk of developing the disease increases if family member is diagnosed

    **10% chance if parent, child, or sibling is diagnosed
  14. Twin study for schizo
    -identical twins had a 48% chance of being schizo

    -the fraternal twins had a 10% chance of being schizo

    ***there were quadruplets that were all diagnosed with schizo
  15. Adoption studies on schizo
    -seperated twins were still highly susceptible to developing schizo

    -adopted children were susceptible if their biological aprents had a trace of schizo
  16. IS it entirely genetics cuase for schizo?
    -people that have relatives are more susceptible but it varies on other variables like environmental
  17. Prenatal stress increases schizo birth (4)
    -maternal smoking, drinking, drug use

    -poor maternal diet

    -complications during pregnancy and delivery

    -illness during pregnancy
  18. STressful childhood environment increases schizo (2)
    -increased risk of schizo if individual grows up in a dysfunctional family

    -higher risk associated with increased environemtnal stress
  19. (Underlying biological sbtrates) Structural abnormalities (2)
    -enlarged ventricles

    -disorganized hippocampus
  20. (underlying biological substrates)((structural abnormalities) Enlarged ventricles
    - individuals with schizophrenia have larger cerebral ventricles than controls

    *particularly true about males with schizo
  21. (underlying biological substrates)((structural abnormalities) Hippocampus disorganized
    -hippocampal cells are disorganized in schizophrenic individuals

    • -some cortical layers have atrophied
    • *smaller than normal
  22. (underlying biological substrates)(functional abnormalities) Hypofrontality
    reduced function of the prefrontal cortex is observed in schizo individuals both at rest and during a test of mental flexibility and strategy shifting
  23. Dopamine theory of Schizo
    Schizo is caused by too much activity at dopamine receptors.

    ***anti- schizo drugs reduce symptoms by decreasing levels of dopamine in the brain
  24. What does chlorpromazine do?
    acts on the dopamine system by blocking dopamine receptors
  25. two types of dopamine receptors
    -D1 and D2
  26. WHat proved that D2 is the hallmark for schizo?
    haloperidol and other effective antischizo drugs act on D2
  27. Tardive dyskinesia
    -comes from using typical antischizo drugs

    -leads to tremors and other involuntary movements such as lip smacking and suckingg, abnormal movements of the tongue, lateral jaw movements, and puffing cheeks
  28. Atypical anti-schizophrenics
    • -drugs have action at multiple receptor subtypes for dopamine but also acts at receptor subtypes for serotonin
    • **clozapine very effective. Acts on D1 and D4 serotonin receptors and little influence on D2 dopamine
  29. There is much more neurological basis than just serotoning and dopamine receptors (2)
    -some schizo do not have alliviated symptoms when taking durgs

    -MRI shows abnormalities in prefrontal, cingulate, and medial temporal areas of cortex
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bio 21