Ecology Chapter 21 up

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  2. Humans fix atmospheric nitrogen when they manufacture synthetic fertilizers using the
    Haber–Bosch process:
  3. Ammoniais made from atmospheric nitrogen under high pressure using an
    iron catalyst.
  4. Detritus =
    dead plants, animals, microorganisms, and egested waste products.
  5. Decomposition =
    the process by which detritivores break down detritus to obtain energy and nutrients (N and P available) as simple, soluble organic and inorganic compounds that can be taken up by other organisms.
  6. Litter =
    fresh, undecomposed organic matter on the soil surface (earthworms, termites, nematodes consume the litter and break it up into progressively finer particles)
  7. Chemical conversion of organic matter into inorganic nutrients is called
  8. Heterotrophic microorganisms release enzymes that break down
    organic macromolecules.
  9. Abiotic and biotic controls on decomposition and mineralization determine
    nutrient availability to autotrophs.
  10. Nitrification—
    NH3 and NH4+ are converted to NO3– by chemoautotrophic bacteria, in aerobic conditions.
  11. Denitrification—
    some bacteria use NO3– as an electron acceptor, converting it into N2 and N2O, in anoxic conditions.
  12. Enviromental apocalypse
    Habitat loss, overexploitation, species invasion,
  13. habitat loss fragmentation
    human use, especially agriculture has partitioned the landscape into isolated, smaller areas, solution= ecological footprint
  14. overexploitation
    elephants, overfishing (trawling bycatch, trawling also degrades benthic habitat.
  15. Species introduction/ invasive species
    zebra muscle, nile carp, non-native, intrduced species that sustain growing populations and have large effects on communities.
  16. invasive species large concern
    impact on endangered species, zebra muscles
  17. Horseman 4, secondary effects
    species removals can alter food web structure and result in secondary extinctions
  18. sloss
    single large or several small, reserves
Card Set
Ecology Chapter 21 up
Ecology Chapter 21 up