third test

  1. Two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs & goals cause them to influence each other
    This is what ?
    Group/ group size 
  2. Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between member
    This is what ?
    Group Cohesiveness
  3. Why do people join groups ?
    • Basic human need
    • need to belong
    • we use other people as important sources of information to help us resolve the ambiguity of certain situations
    • helps define who we are
    • helps establish social norms
  4. ___________ are acceptable behaviors and beliefs that groups members are suppose to follow
    What is this?
    Social norms
  5. Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are suppose to behave 
    this is what ?
    social roles
  6. The tendency for people to do better on somple tasks & worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others & their individual performance can be evaluated
    What is this?
    Social Facilitation
  7. The presences of other increases ________ arousal and our bodies become more energized, its easier to do something simple but harder to do something complex or learn something new
  8. Why does the presences of other cause arousal ?
    • 1.people make us more alert 
    • 2. people are often concerned about how other people are evaluating them
    • 3. people can easily be distracted by the presense of other people
  9. The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others & their individual performance cannot be evaluated
    This is what ?
    Social loafing 
  10. The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in a crowd, leading to an increase in impulsive & deviant acts
    What is this?
  11. Why does deindividuation occur ?
    • -Makes us feel less accountable
    • - increases obedience to group norms 
  12. What is the Zimbardo's prison study ?
    Prisoners and guards study

    • The power of social roles
    • obeying group norms
    • The effect of deindividuation
  13. What is process loss?
    Any aspect of group interation that inhibits good problem solving 
  14. What does process loss occur?
    • Groups might not try hard enough to find out who the most competent member is, instead rely on someone who really doesnt know what he or she is talking about
    • communication problems
  15. What is the Stasser & titus Study ?
    Participants were given good facts and bad facts abut picking a class president, the unshared is unknown
  16. How do you focus on unshared info?
    • Say what everyone knows and continue on with the discussing to reach what not everyone knows
    • - assign specific areas to certain people to research
  17. This is a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness & solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
    Group think
  18. what are some symptoms of group think?
    • 1. illusion of invulnerability( group feels they can do no wrong) 
    • 2. self censorship( Ppl dont voice opposing opinions so they dont rock the boat)
    • 3.Illusion of unanimity ( not called on ppl known to disagree)
  19. What are some consequences of groupthink?
    • group doesnt consider full range of alternatives
    • - They dont develop contingency plans
    • - The dont adequately consider the risks of its preferred choice
  20. How can we avoid group think ?
    • 1. remain impartial
    • 2. Seek outside opinions
    • 3. Create subgroups
    • 4. Seek anonymous opinions
  21. The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
    This is what?
    Group polarization
  22. Leadership effectivness depends on how both task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is & on the amount of control & influence the leader has over the group
    This is what?
    Contingency theory of leadership
  23. More concerned w/ getting the job done than w/ group members feelings & relationships
    This is which type of oriented leader?
    Task oriented
  24. More concerned with group members feelings & relationships
    This is which type of oriented leader?
    Relationship oriented leader
  25. Which type of work situation is this?
    The Leader has excellent relationships with group members, his position as leader is clearly perceived as powerful & the work needed to be done by the group is structured & well defined
    High control work situation
  26. Which type of work situation is this ?
    The leader has poor relationship w/ group members & the work needed to be done is not clearly well defined.
    Low control work situation
  27. _______ oriented leaders are most effective on high or low control situations
  28. _________ oriented leaders are most effective in situations that are moderate in control
  29. What is the butler & geis study ?
    male and female gender leadership
  30. Explain prejudice working against women
    • If women behave in the way they are suppose to behave, according to social norms then they are perceived as having less leadership potential
    • - If women adopt a leadship role more common to a male then they are evaluated negativly
  31. The more we see & interact w/ people, the more likely they are to become our friends 
    This is called ?
    Propinquity effect 
  32. what is the Festinger, schachter & back study 
    • Investigated the propinwuity effect in an apartment complex for college students
    • the closer you live to someone the more you see them, the more likely you are to be friends with them
  33. The more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more likely we are to like it
    is known at what ?
    Mere exposure effect 
  34. Why do we like people who like us ?
    B/c of the self fulfilling prophecies
  35. What is the curtis & miller study ?
    • ppl were paired up
    • one person was told that the other either liked him or didnt like him
    • when told someone likes you, you act more positive towards them
  36. Why do we like attractive people ?
    because we think they are good & they are more familiar to us
  37. What are some stereotypes about attractive people ?
    • more intelligent
    • sociable 
    • extraverted
    • popular
    • assertive
    • happy
  38. What 3 components does love consist of?
    • intimacy- feeling close to & bonding w/ another person
    • passion- arousal you experience toward another person, including sexual attraction
    • commitment- deciding you love the other person and wanting to maintain that love & stay with that person
  39. What components can be combined to form romantic love?
    Intimacy(likeing) & passion (infatuation)
  40. What components can be combined to form fatuous love ?
    Passion(infatuation) & commitment(empty love)
  41. What components can be combined to form companionate love?
    intimacy(liking) & commitment (empty love) 
  42. What components can be combined to form consummate love ?
    intimacy(likeing), Commitment(empty love), passion(infatuation) 
  43. What is the dutton & aron study ?
    there was a long bridge and a short bridge, a hot lady at the end, handed then her phone number to call, more called on the scary bridge because of misattibuted love
  44. The idea that peoples feelings about a relationship depend on
    a-their perceptions of the rewards & costs of the relationship 
    b- the kind of relationship they deserve
    c- their chances for having a better relationship with someone else 
    which theory is this ?
    Social exchange theory
  45. ______- anything positive in the relationship (support, compantionship, entertainment,gifts)
    ______- anything negative in the relationship( putting up w/annoying habits & characteristics of the other person)
    • rewards
    • costs
  46. The kind of relationship you deserve, This is your _________- the ratio of rewards & costs you expect to receive in a particular relationship 
    comparison level
  47. Likelihood for alternatives, this refers to you ____________- your ecpectations about the ratio of rewards & punishments you think you could receive in a differnt relationship 
    Comparison level for alternatives
  48. ppls commitment to a relationship depends on 
    a- their satisfaction with the relationship( in terms of rewards, costs, & comparison level)
    b- comparison level for alternatives
    c- how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
    This is which model?
    Rusbuls investment model
  49. The idea that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards & costs experienced & the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal
    this is known as ?
    Equity theory
  50. explain the inequitable theory.
    a person is either under benefitted or over benefitted, both will be unhappy
  51. Helping the relationship
    trying to improve the relationship ( discussing problems, trying to change, going to a theripist) 
    passively remaining loyal to the relationship( waiting & hoping that the situation will improve, being supportive rather than fighting
    this is which type of behavior?
    Construstive behavior
  52. this harms the relationship more then contructive behaviors help it, this is what ?
    destructive behavior 
  53. _________- The very qualities that were so initially so attractive became the very reason as to why the relationship ended.
    fatal attractions
  54. ______ - high level of responsibility for the decision to break up.
  55. _______- low level of responsibility for the decision to break up.
  56. ________- decision to break up was shared equally by the partners
  57. Any act performed w/ the goal of benefiting another person is what ?
    prosocial behavior or helping 
  58. How do genders differ in helping?
    A western culture, the social norm & role for men is to be chivalrous & heroic while women are expected to be nurturing and caring
  59. how does helping differ amoung cultures?
    More likely to help their " in group"
  60. Latane & darleys 5-step process to helping:
    1st step....
    • notice the event
    • you wont notice if you are in a hurry or distracted, just like in the darley and baston study
  61. Latane & darleys 5-step process to helping:
    2nd step ?
    • Interpret the event as an emergency
    • if you notice the event but dont think someone needs help, you wont help
    • ex: latane & darley smoky room experiment
    • you think its not an emergency because no one around you does either 
  62. Latane & darleys 5-step process to helping:
    3rd step ?
    you might not help because of _______ of _______.- the more witnesses there are, the less likely anyone will help because they think someone else is going to take responsibility & help
    • Assume responsibility
    • Darley & latane seisure study
  63. Latane & darleys 5-step process to helping:
    4th step?
    • Know how to help
    • if someone is choking do you know how to give the heimlich maneuver?
  64. Latane & darleys 5-step process to helping:
    5th step?
    • decide to help 
    • even if you know how to help, you still might not help
    • if could be dangerous, costly, fear of litigation, embarrassed, dont have time
  65. what is the isen and levin payphone study ?
    84% of people helped person pick up papers due to finding money and being in a good mood
  66. Why do good moods increase helping?
    Makes us more likely to behave according to our values & ideals & more likely to help 
  67. Certain bad moods can ______ helping
    • increase
    • it like helping this person cancels out that other bad thing you feel guilty about ( balances things out)
  68. Feeling sad can help ________ helping
    • Increase
    • Helping others can be rewarding and can help alleviate our sadness & distress 
  69. its all about rewards and costs, this is ?
    • social exchange
    • we try to maximize our rewards and minimize our costs
  70. increases the chances that they'll help us in the future, makes us feel better, makes us look good to others
    this is what ?
    rewards of helping
  71. ________ Could be dangerous, could be painful or embarrassing, could take too much time
    cost of helping
  72. we only help when ______ > _______
    reward, costs
  73. _______- the ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person & to experience events & emotions ( joy, sadness) that way that person experiences them
  74. what is batsons empathy altruism hypothesis?
    When we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
  75. What is the toi & batson " helping carol" study 
    empathy will most likely cause you to help 
  76. Intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person 
    this is what ?
  77. What are the two main types of aggresion ?
    • Hostile
    • & instrumental
  78. ______ is aggression stemming from feelings of anger & aimed at inflicting pain
    • Hostile aggression
    • ex-football, players tackles to hurt not for the game
  79. ______ aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain
    • Instrumental aggression
    • Football player tackling the quarterback to get him to fumble the ball
  80. What is the amygdala?
    an area in the core of the brain that is associated w/ aggressive behaviors
  81. _________- a chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive 
    _________- A hormone associated with aggression 
    • serotonin
    • Testosterone
  82. why does alcohol increase aggressive behavior?
    • it reduced our social inhibitions, making is less cautious than we usually are
    • it also disrupts the usual way we process info, making us more likely to interpret a situation as one of provocation when it really isnt
  83. ______ can increase the likelihood of acting aggressively 
    • pain
    • We become irriable & might act aggressively towards the nearest avaliable target
  84. Physical discomfort can _______ aggressive behaviors 
    • Increase
    • ex; heat humidity, air pollution, offensive odors
  85. What is the frustration aggression theory?
    • Frustration increases the probability of an aggressive response
    • its not automatic but it can lead to aggression
  86. What are some factors that increase frustration?
    • closeness to the goal of the object that you desire
    • -closer the goal, greater the expectation of pleasure that is thwarted, greater expectation, more likely the agression
    • 2.unexpectedness of the frustration
    • aggression increases when frustration is unexpected 
  87. What is the roger, dembo & lewin study?
    Children kept from awesome toy for a lot or a little time, kept longer were more frustrated
  88. When does frustration not lead to aggression?
    • When the person is bigger and stronger than you
    • if the person can easily retaliate against you, the likelihood of aggression decrease
    • if there is a legit reason for you frustration
  89. what is the baron study ?
    Participants that were provoked were much more likely to retaliate against the confederate than those in the no-provacation condition
  90. When will provocation not lead to aggession?
    if we dont think their behavior was intentional
  91. ____________- An object that is associated with aggressive responses & whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression ex- a gun
    aggressive stimulus
  92. what is the berkowitz & le page study ?
    Participants who were made angry in the presence of a gun administered more intense electric shocks that those made angry in the presence of the badminton racket
  93. ___________- We learn social behavior ( like aggression) by observing others & imitating them
    Social learning theory
  94. What is the bandura, ross & ross "bobo doll" study ?
    • Children who saw adult punished for beating up doll, did not
    • children who saw adult rewarded for beating up doll, did beat up doll in almost exact manner
  95. what is the forbidden toy experiment
    • you can play with this toy
    • severe punishment- toy high rated but didnt play with
    • mild punishment low rating- didnt want to play with it
  96. _________-the notion that blowing off steam( by performing an agressive act, watch or engaging in) relieves built up aggressive energies & reduces the likelihood of further aggressive bahaviors 
  97. what is the patterson study ?
    Football players aggression increased a large amount a week after football season
  98. what is the geen, stonner & shope study ?
    • students were angered by a confederate and then acted as the teacher, giving shocks to all his errors or just writing them down
    • 2nd time everyone gave the confederate an increasing amount of shocks 
  99. ____________- a feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that runs counter to ones customary conception of oneself
    cognitive dissonance
  100. Actively enable anger to dissipate ( count to 10, deep breaths)
    express feelings in non violent ways ( calm and clear)
    get an apology from the source
    use non aggressive models to imitate
    teach better communication 
    try an empathize w/ source of your aggression
    techniques to reduce aggression
  101. ____________-hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group
  102. ___________- Emotional reaction towards the attitude object, negative emotional reaction toward a group of people
    Prejudice- the affective component
  103. ___________- Beliefs or thoughts about the attitude object, a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among members
    Sterrotypes: The cognitive component
  104. __________- Actions or behavior towards the attitude object, unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of membership in that group
    Discrimination- the behavioral component
  105. what is the Tajfel & billig study ?
    groups were determined by coin toss, but group members acted as if they had known each other forever
  106. What is the quattrone & jones study ?
    • Participants assumed students from a rival university all liked the same things, but students from their university liked different things
    • Shows that they thought all members of the out-group were the same, but there was variability among members of their in-group
  107. _________-the tendency to see relationships (or correlations) between events that are unrelated
    When we expect two things to be related, we fool ourselves into thinking that they really are even when they are actually not
    The illusory correlation
  108. what is the Greenberg & Pyszczynski study
    Researchers wanted to see how people would rate the skill of the AA debater after hearing these prejudiced/non-prejudiced comments
  109. According to Devine, stereotype refutation (denying or ignoring a stereotype) is a two-step process
    • Step 1: hear something prejudiced and it automatically brings up stereotypes (automatic process)
    • Step 2: refute the stereotype (controlled process)
  110. _________-the tendency to make dispositional or internal attributions about an entire group of people
    The ultimate attribution error
  111. How does belief in a just world lead blaming the victim and prejudice?
    We worry that negative treatment can happen to us, so we make ourselves feel better by telling ourselves that the discriminated group must have done something to deserve the negative treatment (e.g., made bad decisions, acted impulsively)
  112. ________- the idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and results in increased prejudice and discrimination
    Realistic conflict theory 
  113. What is the sherif study ?
    The groups were incredibly hostile towards each other – easily formed stereotypes about their in-group (we’re so great) and the out-group (they’re so terrible)
  114. __________-prejudiced attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes an discrimination are the norm
    institutionalized PREJUDICE
  115. When will contact hypothesis work?
    • 1. Mutual interdependence
    • 2. a common goal 
  116. what will help reduce prejudice ?
    • 3.Equal status
    • 4. Informal, interpersonal contact
    • 5. Multiple contacts
    • 6.Social norms of equality
    • 1-6 must be met
  117. what is the jigsaw classroom
    students given differnt assignments to research and they must listen to each other because a test will be given over it all 
Card Set
third test
9-13 social psych test