12.7 The Church in the Renaissance

  1. After Council of Constance
    • I.                   After Council of Constance, Great Schism ended in 1417
    • a.      Ending it was council’s easiest task; heresy and reform were hardest
  2. I.                   Problems of Heresy and Reform
    a.      Heresy not new and church had inquisitorial machinery to deal with it, but Lollardy and Hussitism were new threats
  3. a.      Wyclif and Lollardy
    •                                                               i.      English Lollardy was product of John Wyclif, whose disgust with clerical corruption led him to attack papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices
    • 1.      Said there was no basis in Scripture for papal claims of temporal authority and advocated that the popes be stripped of authority and property
    • a.      Believing that bible should be Christian’s sole authority, he urged that it be made available in vernacular so everyone could read it
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Rejecting all practices not in Scripture, he condemned pilgrimages, veneration of saints, rituals and rites from medieval church
    •                                                             ii.      Followers were Lollards
  4. a.      Hus and Hussites
    Marriage between royal families of England and Bohemiaà Lollard ideas spread and reinforced ideas of Czech reformers led by chancellor at UPrague, John Hus
  5. John Hus Reform
    • 1.      Reform: urged elimination of worldliness and corruption of clergy and attacked excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church 
    • 1.      His objections fell on receptive ears, for Catholic Church, as one of largest landowners in Bohemia, was already criticized
    • a.      Many clergymen German and native Czech’s strong resentment of Germans who dominated Bohemia contributed to Hus’ movement
  6. Council of Constance attempt 
    •                                                               i.      attempted to deal with heresy by summoning Hus to council
    •                                                             ii.      Granted safe conduct by Emperor Sigismund, he went in the hope of a free hearing of his ideas
    • 1.      Actually, arrested, condemned as heretic, and burned at stake in 1415
    • a.      Turned unrest in Bohemia into revolutionary upheaval
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Result: Hussite wars that racked Holy Roman Empire until truce in 1436
  7. Reform of Church
    •                                                               i.      Efforts of Council of Constance to reform church less successful than attempt to eradicate heresy
    •                                                             ii.      Council passed two reform decrees
    • 1.      Sacrosancta: general council of church received authority form God and every Christina including pope, was subject to its authority
    • 2.      Frequency: regular holding of general councils to ensure church reform would continue
  8. These reforms provided 
    •                                                               i.      These reforms provided legislative system within Church superior to popes
    •                                                             ii.      Decrees alone not able to make reform
    • 1.      Councils could issue them, but popes had to execute them, and they didn’t cooperate with councils who wanted to decrease their authority
  9. Martin V  
    •                                                               i.      Beginning with Martin V in 1417, successive popes worked for 30 years to defeat conciliar movement
    • 1.      Final blow in 1460, when Pope Pius II issued papal bull Execrabilis condemning appeals to a council over the head of a pope as heretical
  10. mid 15th popes
    •                                                               i.      Mid 15th: popes reasserted supremacy over Catholic Church
    • 1.      no longer had possibility of asserting supremacy over temporal governments as medieval papacy had
    • a.      although maintained, it lost moral prestige and contributed to further decline in moral leadership of popes
  11. I.                   The Renaissance Papacy
    • a.      Line of popes from end of Great Schism (1417) to beginning of Reformation in early 16th
    •                                                               i.      Primary concern: govern Church as spiritual leader
    • 1.      As heads of church, popes had temporal preoccupations too, and the story of renaissance papacy= temporal preoccupations overshadowed their spiritual functions
  12. a.      Manner of Pursuance of Interest in Papal States and Italian politics, especially use of intrigue and bloodshed= shocking 
    •                                                               i.      Julius II was most involved in war and politics
    • 1.      “warrior pope” led armies and disgusted Christians 
  13. To further territorial aims in Papal State
    • a.      they needed loyal servants
    •                                                               i.      Not hereditary monarchies= couldn’t make dynasties over several generations
    • 1.      Relied on nepotism to promote families’ interests
    • a.      Pope Sixtus IV made five of his nephews cardinals and gave them abundance of church offices to build up their finances
  14. Alexander VI 
    • a.      Alexander VI known for debauchery and sensuality
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Raised one son, nephew, and brother of mistress
    • 1.      Scandalized church by encouraging son Cesare to carve state for self from Papal States
  15. Renaissance popes 
    • a.      Renaissance popes great patrons of culture; efforts made Rome cultural leader
    •                                                               i.      Julius II, the patronage of Renaissance culture was mostly matter of policy and he endeavored to add splendor of pontificate by tearing down Basilica and beginning construction of greatest building in Christendom, the present Saint Peter’s Basilica
  16. Leo X 
    • a.      Julian’s successor, Leo X was also patron
    •                                                               i.      Son of Lorenzo de’ Medici
    •                                                             ii.      Made archbishop at eight and cardinal at 13
    • 1.      Acquired refined taste in art, manners and social life among Florentine Renaissance elite
    • 2.      Pope at 37
    •                                                           iii.      Raphael commissioned to do paintings and construction of St. Peter’s was accelerated as Rome became literary and artistic center of Renaissance
Card Set
12.7 The Church in the Renaissance