12.6 The European State in the Renaissance: V. Holy Roman Empire: Success of the Habsburgs and Strug

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  1. Holy Roman Empire 
    • a.       Holy Roman Empire failed to develop strong monarchy
    • b.      After 1438, position of holy Roman Emperor in hands of Habsburg dynasty
    •                                                               i.      Gradually acquired number of possessions (Austria), house of Habsburg one of wealthiest
    • c.       Success due not to military but policy of dynastic marriages
  2. Marriage
    • a.       By marrying his son to Maximilian to Mary, the daughter of Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, Emperor Frederic III gained Frache-Comte in east-central France, Luxembourg, and Low Countries
    •                                                               i.      Addition of these made dynasty international power and brought opposition of French monarchy due to fear of being surrounded
  3. Maximilian I
    •                                                               i.      Through Reichstag: imperial diet or parliament, he attempted to centralize administration by creating institutions common to entire empire
    • 1.      Opposition thwarted efforsts
    •                                                             ii.      Only real success in marriage alliances
  4. Philip of Burgundy
    • a.       Philip of burgundy: son of Maximilian and Mary, married Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
    •                                                               i.      They produced Charles, who, through unexpected deaths, became heir to all three lines: Habsburg, Burgundian, and Spanish, making him leading monarch
  5. The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern Europe
    Eastern Europe
    • a.       rulers struggled to achieve centralization of territorial states but faced obstacles
    • b.      Population mostly Slavic, but islands of other ethnicities led to trouble
    •                                                               i.      Religious differences too
    • 1.      Catholic, Greek Orthodox Christians, pagans
  6. Polish history
    •                                                               i.      end of 15th c., when preoccupation of Poland’s rulers with problems in Bohemia and Hungary, as well as war with Russians and Turks, enabled aristocrats to reestablish power
    • 1.      Through control of Sejm, or national diet, the magnates reduced peasantry to serfdom by 1511 and established right to elect their kings
    • a.       Polish kings unable to esetablihs strong royal authority
  7. Bohemia
    •                                                               i.      Distrust of germans and ties to Poles and Slovaks (ethni) encouraged Czechs of Bohemia to associate with northeastern Slavic neighbors
    • 1.      Hussite Wars: further dissension and civil war
    • a.       Because of weak monarchy, Bohmeian nobles increased authority and wealth at the expense of both crown and church
  8. Hungary
    •                                                               i.      History Closely tied to that c. and w. Europe by conversion to Roman Catholicism by German missionaries
    • 1.      Church: large and prosperous
    • a.       Wealthy bishops and territorial lords were powerful, independent, political figures
    •                                                             ii.      For a short time, Hungary was important European state, the dominant power in eastern Europe
  9.                                                               i.      King Matthias Corvinus
    • 1.      Broke power of wealthy lords and created well-organized bureaucracy
    • a.       Like typical Renaissance prince, he patronized new humanist culture, brought Italian scholars and artists to his capital at Buda, and made his court one of most brilliant outside Italy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      After death, Hungary returned to weak rule, and the work of Corvinus was undone
  10. Russia
    •                                                               i.      13th: under Mongols
    •                                                             ii.      Princes of Moscow rose to prominence by using relationship to Mongol khans to increase wealth and expand possessions
    •                                                           iii.      Ivan III
    • 1.      New Russian state (principality of Moscow) born
    • a.       Annexed other Russian principalities and took advantage of dissension among Mongols to throw off their yoke by 1480
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12.6 The European State in the Renaissance: V. Holy Roman Empire: Success of the Habsburgs and Strug
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