12.6 The European State in the Renaissance: Growth of the French Monarchy: III

  1. I.                   England: Civil War and a New Monarchy
    Hundred Years War 
    • a.       Hundred Years War affected England too
    •                                                               i.      Cost and loss of manpower= strained English economy
    •                                                             ii.      More turmoil due to War of the Roses
    • 1.      Civil war pitted ducal house of Lancaster, whose symbol was a red rose, against the ducal house of York, whose symbol was a white rose
    • a.       Many aristocrats drawn into conflict
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1485: Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, defeated last Yorkish king, Richard III, and established Tudor dynasty
  2. a.       Henry VII
    •                                                               i.      First Tudor king: worked to reduce internal dissension and establish strong monarchical government
    • 1.      Ended private wars of  nobility by abolishing livery and maintenance, the practice by which wealthy aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to service of their lord
    • a.       Since England had no standing army, king relied on trusted nobles to raise troops for specific complains, after which troops disbanded
  3. Henry VII reaction to nobles
    1.      Henry also controlled irresponsible activity of nobles by establishing Court of Star Chamber, which did not use juries and allowed torture to be used to extract confessions
  4. Henry VII successes
                                                                  i.      Henry VII successful in extracting income from traditional financial resources of English monarch, such as crown lands, judicial fees and fines, and customs duties
  5. Henry and Diplomacy
    1.      By using diplomacy to avoid wars, which are always expensive, the king avoided having to call Parliament on any regular basis to grant him funds
  6. Henry and Landed Gentry and Middle Class
    a.       By not overburdening the landed gentry and middle class with taxes, Henry won their favor, and they provided much support for his monarchy 
  7. Henry's Policies
    1.      Henry’s policies allowed him to leave England with stable and prosperous government and enhanced monarchy status
Card Set
12.6 The European State in the Renaissance: Growth of the French Monarchy: III