12.5 The Artistic Renaissance: IV, V, VI

  1. Early Renaissance
    End of 15th
    • a.      Early Renaissance artists began careers as apprentices to masters in craft guilds
    •                                                               i.      Apprentices with unusual talentà mastersà own workshops
    • 1.      Artists= artisans
    • b.      Patrons played important role= commissions
    •                                                               i.      Wealthy upper class determined content and purpose of paints and sculpture
    • c.       End of 15th: transformioatn in artist position
    •                                                               i.      Especially talented individuals no longer artisans but artistic geniuses with divine creative energies
    • 1.      Artists= heroes, praised more for creavtivity than competence as craftspeople
  2. Respect for Artist
    • a.      Respect for artist grew= ability to profit economically from work and rise on social scale
    •                                                               i.      Equals into circles of upper class
    • 1.      Mingled with political and intellectual elite of their society and became more aware of new intellectual theories, which were embodied in art
    • b.      Platonic Academy and Renaissance Neoplatonism impacted Florentine painters
  3. I.                   The Northern Artistic Renaissance
    • a.      Trying to provide exact portrayal of worldà artists of north and Italy to do different things
    •                                                               i.      Human form= expression= Italian artists tried to master technical skills that allowed them to portray humans in realistic settings
    • 1.      Large wall spaces in Italian churches= fresco painting
    • 2.      North= Gothic cathedrals and stained glass windows emphasized illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel painting for altarpieces
    • a.      Space limited/ great care required for depiction= masters at details
  4. a.      Most influential northern school of art in 15th c. : in __
    Jan van Eyk
    • Flanders                                                              
    • i.      Jan van Eyck first to use oil paintà variety of colors and fine details
    • 1.      Giovanni Arnolfini and his Bride
    • a.      Staggering detail; precise portraits; chandelier, reflecting mirror
    • b.      Still, he was uncertain about perspective
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Work represents Renaissacne painters= tried to imitate nature, but did so not by mastery of laws of perspective and proportion, but by empirical observation of visual reality and accurate portrayal of details
  5. Northern Painters
                                                                  i.      Northern painters placed great emphasis on emotional intensity of religious feeling and created great works of devotional art, especially in their altarpieces
  6. Michelango says differences in n. and Italian Renaissance
    1.      Flanders: exact and deceptively outward appearance of things; subjects provoke piety; paint landscapes; pics have neither value nor grandeur
  7. After distinction of n. and Italian Renaissance, Artists from north did what?
    Albert Durer
    •                                                               i.      Artists from north began studying in Italy and were influenced
    • 1.      Albrecht Durer from Nuremberg
    • a.      Two trips to Italy; absorbed most of what Italians could teach
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Mastered laws of perspective and Renaissance theories of proportion
    • b.      Wrote detailed treatises on both subjects
    • c.       Adoration of the magi
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Used minute details characteristic of northern artists, but itegrated Italian artists to get ideal beauty by careful examining human form
  8. I.                   Music in the Renaissance
    • a.      Court of dukes attracted best artists/ musicians
    •                                                               i.      Guillaume Dufay: most important composer of era
    • 1.      Lived in Italy and well suited to combine late medieval style of France
    • 2.      Contributed change in composition of Mass
    • a.      Secular tunes to replace Gregorian chants as fixed melody that served as basis for Mass
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Made secular songs
    • 1.      Music ceased to be in service of God; more about secular world of courts and cities
    • a.      Chief form of secular music= madrigal 
  9. Madrigal
    •                                                               i.      Poem set to music; origins in 14th c. Italian courts
    • 1.      Texts 12 line poems in vernacular about love
    • 2.      Mid-16th: written for 5-6 voices and employed technique called text painting, in which the music tried to portray the literal meaning of the text
    • a.      Melody rose for heaven or used wavelike motion to represent water
    • b.      Also spread to England= fa-la-la
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12.5 The Artistic Renaissance: IV, V, VI