12.5 The Artistic Renaissance: I, II

  1. Leonardo da Vinci 
    • I.                   Leonardo da Vinci and other Renaissance artists considered imitation of nature primary goal
    • a.      Search for naturalism became end in itself: to persuade onlookers of reality of object or event they were portraying
    • b.      New artistic standards reflected new attitude of mind as well, one in which human beings became focus of attention
  2. Art in the Early Renaissance
    • a.      Leonardo and others said Giotto began imitation of nature
    •                                                               i.      What he begun not taken up again until work of Masaccio
  3. a.      Massacio
    •                                                               i.      Cycle of frescoes in Brancacci Chapel= first masterpiece of Early Renaissance art
    •                                                             ii.      use of monumental figures, a more realistic relationship between figures and landscape, and visual representation of laws of perspective, a new realistic style of paiting was born
    • 1.      onlookers aware of reality that appears to be continuation of hteir own world
    • 2.      provided model
  4. a.      15th century impact
    •                                                               i.      Development of experimental trend that took two directions
    • 1.      One: mathematic side of painting, the working out of the laws of perspective and the organization of outdoor space and light by geometry and perspective
    • a.      Paolo Uccello: figures mere stage props to show off laws of perspective
  5. 15th Century Impact: Investigation
    • 1.      Investigation of movement and anatomical structure
    • a.      The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian by Antonio Pollaiuolo
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Revels in Classical motifs and attempts to portray human body under stress
    • 1.      Realistic portrayal of human nude became preoccupation
  6.                                                               i.      15th century: period of __ and __

    Last decades of 15th
    experimentation and technical mastery

    •                                                               i.      new sense of invention, especially in circle of artists and scholars who formed part of the court of the city’s leading citizen, Lorenzo the Magnifencent
    • 1.      One of this group’s members was Sandro Botticelli
  7. Sandro Botticelli
    • a.      Interest in Greek and Roman mythology reflected in Primavera
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Painting set in garden of Venus
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Figures well defined and possess other-worldly quality that is far removed from realism charactered in Early Renaissance paintings
  8. Revolutionary achievements of Florentine paints in 15th c. 
    Donato di Donatello
                                                                  i.      Matched by equally stunning advances in sculpture and architecture

    •  a.      Studied and copied Roman statues of antiquity
    • b.      Statue of David: first known life-size, freestanding bronze nude in European art since antiquity
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Celebrated Florentine heroism in triumph of Florence over Milanese in 1428
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Radiated simplicity and strength that reflected dignity of humanity
  9. Filippo Brunelleschi 
    • 1.      Filippo Brunelleschi accompanied Donatello to Rome
    • a.      Drew inspiration from architectural monuments of Roman antiquity
    • b.      Returned to Florence and created new architecture
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Building dome for unfishished cathedral of Florence (Duomo), whichw as started in 1296
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      He devised new building techniques and machinery to create dome
  10. Church of San Lorenzo
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When Medici commissioned him to design the Echurch, he created church interior different from medieval
    • 1.      Classical columns, rounded arches, coffered ceiling created environment that comforted rather than overwhenlmed like gothic churches
  11. Portraiture
    • 1.      New emphasis on portraiture accompanied new assertion of human individualty
    • a.      Patrons in corners of sacred pictures
    • b.      Monumental tombs and portrait statues honored many of Florence’s prominent citizens
  12. Mid 15th Century
    • 1.      Mid-15th c: artists given accurate rendering of facial features while revealing inner personalities
    • a.      Portraits of duke and duchess of Urbino by Piero della Francesca showed accurate representation as well as sense of both power and wealth of them
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12.5 The Artistic Renaissance: I, II