1. How do the bones of the cranial base increase in mass?
    Ossification and proliferation of cartilage in the synchondroses
  2. When does interstitial growth not occur
    • When the bones are calcified
    • No space will be created within the arch for incoming teeth
  3. Which teeth have complete crown enamel at 4-5 years?
    Central and lateral mandibular and maxillary incisors
  4. When do the first molars have a completely formed crown?
    30-36 months
  5. Which teeth have complete crown enamel at 6-7 years?
    Canines and second premolars
  6. Which teeth have complete enamel crown formation at 7-8 years?
    Second molars
  7. When do maxillary and mandibular central incisors erupt?
    • Maxillary 7-8 years
    • Mandibular 6-7 years
  8. When do mandibular and maxillary laterals erupt?
    • Mandibular 7-8 years
    • Maxillary 8-9 years
  9. When do permanent first molars erupt?
    Between 5.5 and 7 years for maxillary and mandibular
  10. When do maxillary and mandibular canines erupt?
    • Mandibular: 9-11 years (much earlier)
    • Maxillary: 11-12 years (much later)
  11. When do maxillary and mandibular first premolars erupt?
    • Maxillary: 10-11 years
    • mandibular 10-12 years
  12. When do maxillary and mandibular second premolars erupt?
    • maxillary: 10-12 years
    • mandibular: 11-13 years
  13. When do maxillary and mandibular second molars erupt?
    • maxillary 12-14 years
    • Mandibular 12-13 years
  14. When do third molars erupt
    17-30 years
  15. What is early mesial shift? This increases what risk?
    • Closing of interproximal primary spaces on eruption of 1st molars
    • This increases risk of interproximal caries
  16. What are interna land external solutions?
    • External- childrenĀ need help to figure out responses to stimuli
    • Internal- children developĀ their own responses to stimuli
  17. When is a child no longer considered preoperational? What are the characteristics?
    • Until age 4
    • Generalized and centered thoughts
    • Lots of mental imagery
  18. When is a child considered intuitive? What are the characteristics?
    • Age 4-8
    • Can group objects according to class
    • Reading/writing
  19. When can a child start using fluoridated toothpaste?
    Until age 3, when they can spit it out
  20. When do children have all of their speech sounds developed?
    By age 4
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