Exercise - Important for quiz

  1. Key metabolic features of muscle? (4)
    • 1. Metabolic plasticity
    • 2. Mitochondrial enrichment
    • 3. Major site of insulin-responsive glucose uptake/metabolism (GLUT 4)
    • 4. Muscle-specific isoforms of several metabolic enzymes.
  2. What is the immediate supply energy system for muscles called? What is the most immediately available energy source for ATP resynthesis and how does it help?
    ATP-CP system

    Creatine phosphate. Acts as buffer for.  ATP concentration. When low ATP, CP will donate phosphate to ADP to form ATP. When high ATP, creatine will accept phosphate from ATP to form ADP.
  3. What happens to glycogen and TAG stores when muscle starts contracting?
    Glycogenolysis and lipolysis for aerobic and anaerobic pathways!
  4. What is a disadvantage of the glycotic pathway? What happens when the glycolytic pathway does not have oxygen?

    Net ATP of glycolysis?
    Net ATP under oxidative conditions (including ETC?) #-#?
    It requires oxygen. 

    • Without O2: reducing equivalents accumulate --> pyruvate accumulates --> driving production of lactate via lactate dehydrogenase
    • 2 ATP and 30-38 ATP. 
  5. What is the final enzyme of the ETC? What reduced equivalents does one turn of the TCA cycle produce? (4). How much ATP does one turn of TCA cycle produce via ETC?
    ATP synthase. 3 NADH and 1 FADH2

    10 ATP (9 ATP + 1 GTP).
  6. How many H+ cross inner mitochondrial membrane when NADH passes through ETC? FADH2? How many are used to make 1 ATP?
    • 3 NADH: 10 H+ 
    • 1 FADH2: 6H+

    4 H+ are neded to make 1 ATP

    36 H+/4 = 9 ATP + 1 GTP.
  7. What regulates TCA cycle flux? What is one benefit of using lots of glucose during heavy exercise? 

    That most reducing equivalents (75%) are NADH entering through complex 1 --> produce full ATP (10). If you enter later (CII or distal to Complex I) you miss out on ATP!
  8. What is the order of energy systems used and at what times do they peak and trough?
    • 1. Immediate (ATP-CP) system (0s - 45 s)
    • 2. Short-term glycolytic system (peaks from 1-3 min, lowest point is at 10 s). 
    • 3. Long-term (aerobic) system: Kicks in after 1-2 minutes and sustains activity.
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  9. What is exercise intensity directly proportional to? At what point does lactate increase? 
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Exercise - Important for quiz