Bio Chapter 11

  1. genetics
    scientific study of heredity
  2. fertilization
    process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
  3. true-breeding
    term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
  4. trait
    specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
  5. hybrid
    offspring of crosses btwn parents with different traits
  6. gene
    sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  7. allele
    one of a number of different forms of a gene
  8. segregation
    separation of alleles during gamete formation
  9. gamete
    specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
  10. probability
    likelihood that a particular event will occur
  11. Punnett square
    diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
  12. homozygous
    term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
  13. heterozygous
    term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
  14. phenotype
    physical characteristic of an organism
  15. genotype
    genetic makeup of an organism
  16. independent assortment
    independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
  17. incomplete dominance
    situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
  18. codominance
    situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
  19. multiple alleles
    three or more of the same gene
  20. polygenic trait
    trait controlled by two or more genes
  21. homologous
    term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
  22. diploid
    term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
  23. haploid
    term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
  24. meiosis
    process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
  25. tetrad
    structure containing four chromatids that forms during meiosis
  26. crossing-over
    process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
  27. gene map
    diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
  28. dominant
    a term used to refer to the allele that is exhibited for a particular trait; represented by capital letters
  29. recessive
    term used to refer to allele that is only exhibited for a particular trait if the dominant allele for the trait is not present; represented by lowercase letters
Card Set
Bio Chapter 11
Bio Vocab. Unit 4