Psych Final

  1. what is social clock?
    great variability?
    • timeframe of major events
    • -to social clock provides confidence
    • these days in what those clocks should be
  2. average age of events:
    women tend to do what first?
    • marriage
    • first child
  3. dating relationships:
    how do people find partners?
    more often?
    • bars and personal ads
    • social networks = friends, family and work
  4. Dating relationships:
    who do people seek out as partners?
    look for similarities?
    • same for hetero-and homosexual individuals
    • age, education, ethnicity, religion
  5. importance of various traits in mate selection?
    • mutual attraction
    • dependable character
    • emotional stability
    • pleasing disposition
  6. Sexuality:
    sexual partners throughout life:
    rise in #
    few people:
    most have?
    • of sexual partners in last 40 years
    • less than 3% have more than 4 partners a year
    • 1 partner with/in a given year
  7. having multiple partners through adulthood is partly due to:
    increase in?
    getting married?
    • cohibition followed by breakup
    • -married later
    • -divorce and remarriage
  8. Sternberg Theory:
    Three componants of love?
    • intimacy-emotional connection
    • passion-physical and sexual attraction
    • commitment- tied to person
  9. Sternberg:
    Triangular theory of love: 3 componants = 7 forms
    liking =
    romantic love=
    fatuous love=
    empty love=
    consummate love=
    • intimacy
    • passion and intimacy
    • intimacy and commitment
    • passion
    • passion and commitment
    • commitment
    • intimacy, passion, commitment
  10. the qualities that make up these different love follows ____, _____, _____
    ____ peaks early and fades?
    ______ and ______ steady incline, decline, stable
    • intimacy, passion, commitment
    • passion
    • intimacy and commitment
  11. Loneliness:
    more likely for _____
    most intense for?
    • adolescents and young adults
    • divorce & widow, single-non dating men, married women, shy, anxious people
  12. Singlehood:
    growing number of single people over ___
    single men have?
    married women report?
    can be more ?
    • 30 years old
    • more women, lower SES men, african americans
    • physical and mental health problems
    • greater loneliness than single women
    • more stressful for women as they approach menopause
  13. Cohabitation: living together before marriage:
    on ___
    before marriage in u.s and canada? other countries?
    more cohabitation among ?
    • rise
    • preparing for marriage or avoiding it
    • greater risk for divorce ; no effect
    • liberal and drogunous (=feminine & masculine)
    • less religious individuals
  14. Cultural mate selection?
    love, autonomy=self choice, emotional connection

    dependability, parental approval, similar background
  15. Marriage:
    husband and wife partaking in traditional role/work

    • responsibilities shared between partners
    • -dont have expectations of certain roles
  16. Parenthood:
    decision to have children ________
    ___ to raise child?
    martial satisfaction ?
    marital satisfaction improved by?
    • more difficult
    • expensive
    • declines after birth of child

    • having children after 1st year of marriage
    • greater father involvement
  17. Divorce:
    adjustments after divorce hardest in ?
    • age of marriage- under 25 years
    • divorced parents
    • SES-conflict over finances
    • partner behavior- drinking, drugs, cheating

    first 1-2 years
  18. Remarriage:
    often ?
    often also results in?
    • within 4 years after divorce
    • divorce
    • -marry for practical reasons
    • -same marital discord
    • -coping mechanism
    • *stepparent role adaption
  19. Middle Adulthood:
    children leave home what happens?
    greater ?
    often see increases in ?
    • empty nest vs. liberating experience
    • financial stability
    • martial satisfaction and sibling relationships
  20. Middle Age adults and Aging parents:
    most older americans?
    quality of relationship?
    shift from?
    balance care = sandwich generation =?
    • live near one of their middle aged children
    • related to earlier relationship quality
    • parent-child to child-parent care
    • raising own kids and caring for parents as well
  21. Later Adulthood:
    martial satisfaction?
    -men more?
    • highest in late adulthood
    • divorce is rare but very stressful

    • very stressful, restructering of social ties
    • men more likely to remarry
    • most learn to cope
  22. Later Adulthood:
    ties to adult children?
    most care?

    ties to adult grandchildren?
    • often want emotional support
    • comes from older daughter

    • grandchildren = important
    • to more equals
  23. Elderly Maltreatment:
    often occurs to ?
    perpetrators are often?
    • physical abuse, physical neglect, physchological abuse, financial abuse
    • those who are frail
    • a relative or someone trusted for care
  24. Erickson -Young Adulthood:
    Intimacy vs. Isolation
    need to?
    to much intimacy?
    to much independance?
    who is this more of an issue for?
    • balance of independence with closeness to another
    • loss of self - to dependent
    • loneliness
    • women
  25. Erickson -Mid. Adulthood:
    Generativity vs. Stagnation:

    ways of being generative?
    • concentration of giving to others - family, community, future generations
    • putting oneself above welfare of others
    • examples of being generative:
    • -caring for younger family members
    • -monitoring younger coworkers
    • -volunteer work
    • -political involvement
  26. Midlife Crisis:
    23% of people say?
    Only 8% say that ?
    For most there is ?
    • are/have expereienced a midlife crisis
    • this is related to aging
    • a time in midlife about re-evaluating choices, not necessarily re-choosing
    • buy sportscar, get a tattoo, change job, dye hair
  27. Midlife crisis?
    usually change is _____
    usually not _____
    crisis usually associated with ?
    • gradual
    • associated with great emotional stress
    • "setting" on imposed identities earlier in life
    • -foreclosure personalities
  28. Self Understanding in Mid. Adulthood:
    self concept is?
    greater concentration on possible selves?
    increases in ?
    • quite stable in mid. adulthood
    • idea of who they can become = what legacy is

    • self acceptance
    • autonomy - self choice
    • enviromental mastery (social) - how interact with others
    • stress management
  29. Erikson: Late Adulthood:
    Ego Intergrity vs. Ego Despair

    ego intergrity?
    ego despair?
    what may cause ego despair?
    fullfillment, few regrets

    • dissastisfaction with how lived life
    • -physical and cognitive decline
  30. Pecks 3 Tasks of Ego Intergrity:
    1. Ego differentation vs. work role preoccupation
    2. body transcendence vs. body preoccupation
    3. ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
    1. self as whole person - many aspects of fulfillment

    2. age gracefully- go with flow, others: newest body problem

    • 3. legacy- made a difference, in world =satisfied
    • dissatisfied -disgruntal
  31. Reminiscence:
    is ?
    life review ?
    found to ?
    • talking about past events
    • idea/things happened in lives
    • increase happiness in late adulthood
    • -bonding experience with others
  32. Self Concept and Personality:
    secure sense of ?
    The grumpy old man myth?
    religion and spirituality?
    • who one is and greater self acceptance
    • myth: usually agreeable, adaptable to changes, more giving
    • plays larger role
  33. Suicide in Adulthood:
    difference in men and women?
    attempts vs. completion?
    correlation with age?
    • men more likely to complete
    • women more likely to be found
    • age increase = more likely to attempt
  34. Suicide in Late Adulthood:
    39% of all suicides are?
    peaks when?
    much greater chance?
    preventative factors?
    • individuals over 50 years
    • 75 years
    • chance of completion
    • family, friends, social isolation, religion, culture that respects older adults
    • greater reverance for older adults
  35. Older Adults and Larger World:
    older adults become?
    disengagement theory?
    • become less engaged with others and community - why is disengament theory.....
    • physical and cogntive decline
    • mutual disengagment
    • interact less
  36. Cognitive Development:
    Schiae's Theory: changes in the goals of thinking
    acquisitive stage?
    achieving stage?
    responsibility stage?
    executive stage?
    reintegrative stage?
    • gaining knowledge to function rest of life (child,teen)
    • time people use base of knowledge (y.adulthood)
    • using knowledge to care for things surronding you (
    • having impact on things (
    • moving from impact to thinking about what have done in life so far and processing it (l.adt)
  37. Cogntive Development:

    Other developments?
    • pragmatic thought = social rules when using language to interact with others
    • -more flexible
    • -better able to handle contradictions
    • expertise
    • problem solving
    • mental abilities improve to mid adult then decline
  38. Cognitive Changes- Mid. Adult

    increases in?
    decreases in?
    for many, middle age is?
    declines in?
    • crystalized intelligence
    • fluid intelligence
    • mental abilities are at peak performance
    • perceptual speed decreases
    • mental abilities are reduced with "practice"
  39. what is crystallized intelligence?
    culturally based knowledge, language, and understanding of social conventions
  40. what is fluid intelligence?
    information processing abilities such as short term memory
  41. Cognitive Changes- Mid. Adult
    attention becomes?

    declines in
    less use of
    more reliance on

    Greater ?
    • worse at multitasking
    • worse at switching between tasks

    • working memory
    • memory strategies
    • metacognitive strategies

    problem solving
  42. when does fluid intelligence decline?
    when does crystallized intelligence decline?

    what is selective optimization with compensation?
    • early to mid adulthood
    • late adulthood

    • focus on things that can still do effectively
    • -personally valued activities
    • -compensate choose only what best at
  43. Memory in Late Adulthood:
    declines in?
    two types of memory?
    older adults have harder time with?
    • recall but not as much decline in recognition
    • explicit- facts, figures, dates
    • implicit-  unconsicous, how things feel w/o processing
    • with explicit memory than with implicit memory
  44. Memory Late Adulthood:
    remote memory?
    greatest recall for?
    older adults have best recall for?
    why is adolescence and early adulthood so memorable?
    • very clear memory of large events in lives
    • events that occured more recently
    • events that occured between 10-30 years old than those that occured in mid. adulthood
    • most major events
    • numerous life changes
  45. Language processing in Late Adulthood:
    little change in?
    there are declines in?
    compensate for lack of detail?
    • comprehension of spoken and written tests
    • word retrievel
    • slower responding
    • in their language with "gist" and moral lessons
  46. Wisdom:
    expertise in?
    we often assume that?
    however, research says?
    life experiences are?
    • pragmatics of life
    • age and wisdom go together
    • does not support this proposition
    • better predictors of wisdom than age
  47. Maintaining Cognitive Functioning:
    serious declines?
    terminal decline?
    • -leisure pursuits
    • community participation
    • -training programs
    • lifelong learning
    • -may not be normative
    • -decline in cognitive abilities happens shortly before death
  48. Mental Disabilities:
    two common types?
    • any significant cognitive impairment
    • -many different types
    • -most are irreversible and incurable
    • -involves deteoration

    • alzheimers disease
    • cerebrovascular dementia
  49. Alzheimers Disease:
    can last from ?
    • few years to 20 years
    • loss of memory of recent events
    • loss of memory for earlier events
    • changes in personality
    • difficulties with body movements
    • sleep problems
    • speech difficulties
  50. Alzheimers Disease:
    two changes in the brain?
    neurofibrillary tangles?
    amyloid plaques?
    the more distrbuted these problems are?
    lower levels of ?
    • neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques
    • twisted threads of neural fibers with in neurons
    • protein deposits outside the neuron destroying surronding neurons
    • throughout cerebral cortex, worse disease
    • neurotransmitters
  51. Two Types of Alzhiemers:
    familial ?

    due to?
    could also be?
    • genetic componant
    • onset occurs earlier
    • more rapid progression
    • dominant gene

    • does not run in families
    • due to mutation in genes
    • could be other factors
  52. Cerebrovascular Dementia: (stop of blood flow to brain)
    due to?
    linked to?
    also linked to?
    • serious of strokes leaving areas of dead brain cells
    • high blood pressure, cardio disease, diabetes =lead to stroke
    • smoking, alcohol use, low protein diet, obesity, stress
  53. Choosing Career:
    Ginzberg career choice theory?
    fantasy period?
    tenative period?
    realistic period?
    • fantasy, tenative, realistic period
    • early childhood - singer, model, firefighter
    • adolescence - teacher
    • early adulthood
  54. Influences on occupational goals:
    choice of occupation is influenced  by?
    John Hollands six personality traits?
    • personality
    • realistic, intellectual, social, conventional, enterprising, artistic
  55. Holland Theory: characteristics and occupation
    • high physical strength - farming or trucking
    • high in conceptual and theoretical thinking - math/science
    • high verbal skills- involve working w/people - teaching
    • high in following directions - bank teller
    • high verbal abilities - sales, politics
    • imaganitive - painting or writing
  56. Vocational Development: Early Adulthood:
    new jobs are?
    many people?
    often, with age, occupational aspirations ?
    many must cope with being?
    • rarely ideal as imagined
    • switch jobs in their twenties
    • make way for other goals - family, community
    • being in a duel- earner marriages
  57. what is a duel-earner marriage?
    both parties are making money for living
  58. Vocational Development: Gender Differences:

    communal professions?
    agentic professions?

    communal jobs are often considered?
    woman are still?
    women still earn? (referred to as ?)
    • caring for others
    • individualistic -self focused

    • lower status
    • underrepresented in many professions and vice versa
    • earn significantly less than men in same profession
    • -referred to as wage gap
  59. Vocational Development: Mid. and Late Adulthood:

    Glass ceiling?
    problem for who?
    not based on?
    • unspoken limit on career advancement of a category of women due to discrimination
    • women and minorities
    • any deficits in abilities
  60. Why do people work:

    extrinsic motivation?
    intrinsic motivation?
    individuals who have ?
    • motivated by external self
    • ex. money
    • wanting to work because of who you are internally
    • extrinsic orientation more likely to switch jobs many times
  61. Vocational Development: Mid and Late Adulthood: Job satisfaction:

    throughout adulthood there are?
    positive increases in job satisfaction

    • overwelmed and tired of job
    • become no longer motivated by job
  62. Vocational Development: Mid. and Late Adulthood:
    older people in the workforce:

    • cant learn new skills
    • slower
    • resistant to supervision

    • more self directed
    • fewer abscences
    • fewer accidents
  63. Retirement:
    average age?
    however many in ?
    planning is ?
    financially income?
    also planning for?
    • 63
    • mid adulthood
    • key to successful retirement
    • drops by 50%
    • future activities: travel, volunteer, work
  64. Retirement:
    relatively easy?
    often choose ?
    greater interest in?
    • adjustment with some but not many problems
    • leisure pursuits that begin in earlier life
    • politics-protect own generation and future generations
  65. Housing arrangements: Older Adults:
    own home optimal when?
    problematic when?
    better in ?
    with extended families?
    • in good health
    • financial problems arise
    • other countries where greater financial assistance is provided
    • less common today
  66. Housing arrangements:residential communities:
    congregate housing?
    life care communities?
    nursing homes much less?
    -greater need for?
    • live in similar housing surronded by people their age
    • housing with stepped up care when needed -ass. living
    • independence and social contact
    • -interaction with outside world
  67. General Well being:

    body is at its best when?
    biological aging or senescence?
    we see systmatic when?
    • late teens and twenties
    • natural decline in bodily functioning
    • decline in well being but there is alot of individual variablilty
  68. General Well being-cardiovascular and respitory:
    declines begin in?
    peak in speed?
    peek in endurance?
    however with what?
    • early adulthood
    • -rigidity of heart muscles
    • -poorer lung capacity
    • early mid 20's
    • late 20's
    • training - decline is gradual
  69. General Well being-cardiovascular and respitory:
    declines very gradual when?
    in late adulthood:
    heart pumps with?
    lung capacity?
    • early and mid. adulthood
    • less force
    • slows
    • may be reduced as much as half
  70. General well being- bone mass:
    bone mineral content ?
    decline more for who?
    for women, mineral absorption decreases when?
    at extremes?
    exercise and calcium supplements can?
    • declines reducing bone density
    • women
    • after menopause due to lack of estrogen
    • osteoporosis = bones thin and brittle
    • reduce mineral loss
  71. Vision:
    mid. adulthood:
    corrected how
    need greater?

    Late adulthood:
    macular degeneration?
    • cant see things close up
    • -bifocals
    • -light to see
    • narrowing field of vision

    • calcification on lens of eye = blurry
    • parts if field of vision not beign able to process
    • -optic nerve not make connection with eyeball
  72. Hearing:
    lose hearing at highest register
  73. Hearing loss:
    begins around?
    usually loss of hearing of?
    also loss of ability to discriminate?
    declines are greater for who? why?
    • 25 years
    • high frequencies
    • complex tone patterns
    • men than women
    • why- engage in loud noise behaviors
    • ex. hunting, concerts, enviromental factors
  74. other senses:
    see greatest decline in ?
    sensitivity to taste and sense of smell is ?
    gradual loss of sense of?
    • other senses in late adulthood
    • reduced around age 60
    • touch particulary in fingertips
  75. Illness:
    decrease in immune system is ? beginning in?
    what is an autoimmune response?
    problems become more pronounced when?
    two consequences of autoimmune response?
    • gradual.... early adulthood
    • immune system gets confused and attacks itself
    • late adulthood
    • rheumatic arthritis (attack cartiledge) and adult on set diabetes ( attack insulin)
  76. Illness:
    what is cancer?
    2nd leading cause of?
    60% fatal within 5 years of ?
    risk factors of cancer?
    • mass amounts of abnormal structures of cells
    • death among adults
    • diagnosis
    • diet, smoking, exposure to sunlight, exposure to harmful chemicals and radiation
  77. Illness:
    what is arthritis?
    affects who ?
    what is generative joint disease? characterized by what?
    what causes this?
    most at risk?
    • disease of the joints especially hips, knees, neck, hands and lower back
    • half of all older adults
    • stiff joints
    • wearing out of cartiledge in joint
    • -athletes
    • -people in hard labor jobs
    • -older adults
  78. Sleep Patterns: In Late Adulthood:
    shift toward earlier?
    for men
    -enlargement in ? - leads to frequent urination in the night
    more cases of ? ____  and _____
    what is sleep apnea?
    what is restless legs?
    older adults benefit from realizing what ?
    • earlier bed times and earlier wake times
    • prostate gland
    • airway collapse, stop breathing, body wakes up you don't
    • misfiring of neurons in legs
    • that changes in sleep patterns are normative
  79. Reproductive Ability:
    increasingly adults are choosing to delay what?
    however, women in mid 30's have a greater likelihood of?
    for men, semen production does what?
    • having children until 30's
    • fertility problems
    • declines after age 40
  80. Reproductive Ability:
    what is climacteric?
    -perimenopause is?
    -menopause is?
    often results in?
    • process of declining reproductive ability
    • 5-10 year change ending with menopause
    • hormonal changes and periods becoming infrequent and eventually stopping
    • hot flashes and moodiness
  81. Reproductive Ability:
    what is climacteric?
    - enlargement of ?
    -fertility is also ?
    • process of declining in reproductive ability
    • prostate gland
    • reduced but never dimishes
  82. General Health:
    what is secondary aging?
    • decline in physical functioning that takes place due to...
    • individual choices, behaviors, exposure to envorimental factors
  83. Weight and Exercise:
    weight increases during when?
    muscle to fat:
    shift that occurs primarly during?
    for men - muslce to fat to where?
    for women -muscle to fat to where?
    Weight declines when?
    • early and mid adulthood
    • middle adulthood
    • belly
    • thighs, hips, butt, belly, breast
    • late adulthood
  84. The Body and Mind Connection:
    what influences health and physical development throughout adulthood?
    • genetics
    • enviroment
    • psychological factors
    • behavior changes
  85. Weight and Exercise:
    22% of adults are ?
    over 50% of adults are ?
    why is there obesity?
    • obese
    • overweight
    • people aren't eating less but doing less activity
  86. Weight and Exercise:
    obesity and age show what?
    why is there a correlation?
    what is basal metabolic rate?
    • positive correlation
    • less physically active, no change or greater calorie/fat intake, natural decline in basal metabolic rate
    • how many calories needed for basic function
  87. Benefits of exercise?
    1.reduced ?
    2. greater ?
    3. lessened vulnerability to?
    4. less risk for?
    5. improved ?
    6. can lead to greater ?
    • fat
    • muscle tone
    • disease
    • cancer
    • mood
    • cognitive skills
  88. Body-Mind Connection: Hostility and Stress:
    linked to poor ___ and _____
    increases _____ ____ _____
    also linked to negative ?
    stress management becomes critical .. examples
    what personality helps with stress?
    • health and illness
    • heart rate, blood pressure, stress hormones = cortisol
    • life events
    • problem centering coping, exercise, social support
    • hardy-optimistic
  89. Stress:
    acute stress?
    chronic stress?
    differ on psychological response how?
    • short term events that can cause stress - finals
    • long term stressors with no clear end point - terminal illness
    • body not built to be on high alert all the time -body will crash
  90. Heart Disease:
    in both men and women what is the number 1 cause of death?
    who are more likely to suffer from heart disease?
    risk increases with?
    • heart disease
    • men
    • age
    • genetics and lifestyle
    • -smoking, diet, exercise, psychological factors
  91. Alcohol:
    abuse more prevelant among who?
    for men, typically begins in?
    for women, onset in ?
    serious problem - 60% of users do what?
    • men
    • adolescence or early adulthood
    • 20-30's
    • relapse
  92. Cigarettes:
    Large decrease : 40% to 25% in last ?
    however on the rise among? why?
    almost always begins when?
    quitting can lead to ?
    those who use aids - gum or patches often?
    • 40 years
    • teens - rebel, easy access, personal fable
    • before 21 years
    • drastic health improvements
    • relapse
  93. Comprehending Death:
    children rarely have to face ?

    concepts mastered in elementary school?
    death directly compared to previous generations

    permanance, universality, nonfunctionality
  94. Permance:


    • permanent fixture - cant come back to life
    • come to understand everyone dies
    • the dead cant do things anymore
  95. Adolescences and Death:
    comprehend death but can do what?
    also because of their what often see themselves as invincible?
    therefore adolescents often take what?
    • apply realities of their death
    • personal fables
    • life threatning risks
  96. Death Anxiety:
    what is it?
    feel death anxiety the least when?
    declines during?
    who are more likely to have greater death anxiety?
    • terror of unknown after death
    • those who are certain there is life after death
    • those who are certain there isnt life after death
    • adulthood
    • women
  97. Kubler-Ross's stages of dying

    theory has been highly what?
    these are common emotions when what?
    • denial
    • anger
    • bargaining
    • depression
    • acceptance

    • highly critizied-cause its stages
    • learning of major life changing events
  98. Place to Die:
    although most people would prefer to die at ? few do
    where do most people die?
    what is hospice care?
    what does it do?
    • home
    • ER  or intensive care units
    • addressing the needs of individuals with less than 6 months left to live- end of life hospital care
    • pallative care-relieve pain, takes place at home, provides medical, psychological, spiritual counseling, house keeping support
  99. Euthanasia:
    passive euthanasia?
    advanced medical directive?
    living will?
    durable power of attorney?
    • ceasing medical interventions that would prolong life
    • instructions left by individual about end of life
    • medical interventions wanted to live
    • give legal power to individual about lifesaving like tx.
  100. Euthanasia:
    voluntary active euthanasia?
    assisted suicide? (illegal)
    • make efforts to end life early - stop eating
    • another person aiding to die at faster rate
    • - want to die but cant complete by self
  101. Bereavement:
    what does that mean?
    more difficult for what kind of deaths
    prolonged dying allows for what?
    suicides and death without known causes can be ?
    very difficult for who losing who?
    children losing parent or sibling can have what?
    • experience of losing a loved one
    • unanticipated
    • anticipatory grieving- what life will be like w/o them
    • very troubling
    • parent losing child
    • very difficult time - may blame selfs
  102. Stages of Bereavement: after death of loved one
    • avoidance
    • confrontation
    • accomodation
  103. Stages of Bereavment:
    • occurs in beginning - other things taking up time - funeral
    • come to point to have to deal with - usually anger happens
    • make shifts in lives that the dead is no longer part of
  104. Consequences of Bereavement:

    widows are at heightened rish for death following the loss of who?
    what gender struggles most?
    people who suffer most as of bereavement?
    -those who were highly?
    -those with little what?
    -those who find the death what?

    what is blocked grief?
    • spouse
    • men
    • insecure, anxious people
    • dependent on loved one
    • social support
    • meaningless

    stuck at avoidance stage of bereavement
  105. Life expectancy higher for what gender?
    developed countries usually outlive what other countries
    • female
    • underdeveloped
  106. Physical Stages of Death:
    for most people death is not?

    Agonal phase
    clinical death
    gentle or easy

    • point of suffering before death
    • body stops functioning - still can do resusitation
    • point of no return
  107. Brain death?

    what is persistant vegetative state?

    difference between the two?
    brain has stopped functioning for maintenance of body

    • -severe brain damage
    • -wakeful conscious
    • -vegetative state more than 4 weeks

    veg- breathing, damage to thinking part of brain
  108. Major themes of semester?


Card Set
Psych Final