How are burns rated?
- By depth of tissue damage:
- • 1st degree- superficial
- • 2nd degree-partial thickness
- • 3rd degree-full thickness
- • 4th degree-full thickness + underlying tissue
Why should you triage burns to head/face ahead of other more extensive burns?
- • **Burns to face/head triaged ahead of
- other burns, even if BSA is >
- Trauma following inhalation of heating gases and toxic chemicals produced during combustion
- Upper airway obstruction may require endotracheal intubation
What are some complications associated with burns?
- • Immediate threat of airway compromise
- • Profound shock
- • Infection (local and systemic sepsis)
- • Inhalation injuries, aspiration, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolus
What are emergency care priorities for the burn victum?
- – Stop the burning process
- – Assess victim’s condition
- – Cover burn to prevent contamination
- – Transport child to appropriate level of care
- – Provide reassurance
Tx for burn patients?
- • First priority: airway maintenance
- • Fluid replacement therapy: critical in first 24 hours
- • Nutrition: enhanced metabolic demands
- • Medication: antibiotics, analgesics, anesthetics for procedural pain
Tx for MAJOR burns?
- • Primary excision
- • Debridement
- • Topical antimicrobial agents
- • Biologic skin coverings
- – Allograft (human cadaver skin)
- – Xenograft (porcine skin)
- – Synthetic skin substitutes
- – Split-thickness skin grafts (sheet or mesh graft)
What kinds of sunlight is responsible for sunburns and skin cancer?
Ultraviolet B waves.
What is cold damage/frost bite?
- --Tissue damage due to ice crystals in the tissues.
- – EBP: Rapid rewarming is associated with less tissue necrosis
- – Blisters appear 24 to 48 hours after rewarming
- – Treatment of blisters similar to burn treatment
What are some possible nursing diagnosis for frost bite?
- • Impaired skin integrity rt
- • Risk for infection rt
- • Fluid volume deficit rt
- • Anxiety/pain rt
- • Risk for fluid volume excess rt
- • Impaired physical mobility rt
- • Ineffective thermoregulation rt
- • Altered family processes rt
- • Body-image/self-esteem disturbance rt