What is psychopathology?
Sickness or disorder of the mind
Identify the criteria for psychopathology.
- -Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful
- thoughts, feelings, and actions.
- -When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional psychiatrists and psychologists label it as disordered
Identify the five components of the multiaxial system.
- -Clinical disorders
- -Mental retardation or personality disorders,
- -Medical conditions
- -Psychosocial problems
- -Overall assessment of how well the person is functioning
Distinguish between diagnosis and prognosis.
Diagnosis is the result of an assesment, prognosis is the course or propable outcome of the diagnosis.
Distinguish between structured and unstructured interviews.
- Unstructured: the topics of discussion vary as the interviewer probes different aspects of the person's problems
- Structured: clinicians ask standardized questions in the same order each time.
Descibe the pros and cons of different types of testing for psychopathology.
- -Behavioral assessment includes observations of individuals in a variety of settings and psychological testing
- -Neuropsychological assessment allows for a determination of possible brain abnormalities
- -Evidence-based assessment: Uses research to guide how mental disorders are evaluated
Why is dissociative identity disorder controversial?
- -Children cope with abuse by pretending that it is happening to someone else
- -They dissociate their mental states from their physical bodies
- -Most people diagnosed with DID are women who report being severely abused as children
- -suggested that the huge increase in the number of DID cases was due to therapists who used hypnosis to discover traumatic events from the patient’s childhood, and might have suggested DID symptoms to the patients they were assessing
Explain the diathesis-stress model.
A diagnostic model that propses that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is couoled with a precipitating event.
Describe biological facors in mental disorders.
-Comparing mental disorders between identical and fraternal twins and studying individuals who have been adopted reveal the importance of genetic factors to the development of mental disorders
Describe family systems and sociocultural approaches to mental disorders.
Family systems: considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems with the family
Sociocultural: psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures
Describe cognitive-behavioral factors in mental disorders.
psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive thoughts and beliefs.
Identify the similarities and differences of the different anxiety disorders.
- 1. Generalized anxiety disorder: state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event.
- 2. Panic disorder: sudden overwhelming attacks of terror.
- 3. Phobias: fear of a specific object or situation.
- 4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions.
- 5. Post-traumatic stress disorder: frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma.
Distinguish between obsessions and compulsions.
- Obsessions: recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts or ideas or mental images.
- Compulsions: particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perfprm over and over again.
Explain the cognitive, situational, and biological component of anxiety disorders.
- Cognitive: When presented with neutral situations, anxious individuals tend to preceive them as threatening.
- Situational: Watching other people's fears can intern cause you to fear those same things.
- Biological: Children that have an inhibited temperamental style are more likely to develop anxiety disorders later in life.
Identify the characteristics of major depression.
severe negative moods or a lack of interest in normal pleasurable activities.
How does dysthymia differ from major depression?
Unlike depression, dysthymia is of mild to moderate severity.
Identify the characteristics of bipolar disorder.
Alternating periods of depression and mania.
Explain the cognitive, situational, and biological components of mood disorders.
- Cognitive: depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.
- Situational: life stressors play a role in depression.
- Biological: Mood disorders run in families. The rate of depression is higher in identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%).
What is the cognitive triad?
People with depression think negatively about themselves, about their situations, and about the future.
Distinguish between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Positive: excesses in functioning, such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech or behavior
Negative: deficits in functioning, such as apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed speech and movement
Identify the four types of hallucinations.
Identify the contributions of environmental factors to schizophrenia.
A dysfunctional family environment can cause a child wit hgenetic risk of schizophrenia to develop schizophrenia.
Identify the three groups of personality disorders.
-odd or eccentric behavior-Anxious or fearful behavior-Dramatic, Emotional, or erratic behavior
fear of social situations, going outside comfort zone (extreme cases won’t leave the home)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder marked by a lack of empathy and remorse.
In psychology, examination of a person's mental state to diagnose possible psychological disorders.
(attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) A disorder characterized by restless, inattentive, and impulsive behaviors.
A developmental disorder involving deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests.
A mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania.
Borderline Personality Disorder
A personality disorder characterized by identity, affective, and impulse disturbances.
A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive cognitions.
False personal beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality.
A diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event.
Acting in strange or unusual ways, including strange movement of limbs, bizarre speech, and inappropriate self-care, such as failing to dress properly or bathe.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
The occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual.
A form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression.
Factors that contribute to the development of a disorder.
Family Systems Model
A diagnostic model that considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within the family.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
(GAD) A diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event.
perception of things that are not there, potentially auditory, lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory.
Learned Helplessness Model
A cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around them.
A disorder characterized by severe negative moods or a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities.
The system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors.
absence of appropriate behaviors
An anxiety disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions.
An anxiety disorder that consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror.
Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, that are excesses in behavior; the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking)
A disorder of the mind.
A mental disorder characterized by alterations in perceptions, emotions, thoughts, or consciousness.
A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures.