What was the difference between how religion attempts to answer questions about the human condition and how philosophy attempts to answer these questions?
Why is Thales considered to be the first philosopher?
- Thales did not appeal to myth or religion, but used onlyhis reason and experience.
- [He predicted a solar eclipse.]
Affirming the Consequent
- If P, Then Q
- [Not a Valid Form]
Denying the Antecedent
- If P, Then Q
- Not P
- Not Q
- [Not a Valid Form]
What is the difference between a valid and a sound argument?
- An argument is valid when the conclusion of the argument must be true if its premises are true.
- An argument if sound when:
- 1) it is valid, and
- 2) all of its premises are true.
What is a supererogatory action?
An action that is praiseworthy but not obligatory
What is conventional ethical relativism?
All moral principles are relative to culture.
What is moral objectivism?
Moral principles are not relative to individuals or culture but they apply to everyone, they are universal.
What is moral absolutism?
a particular form of moral objectivism that says that there are some moral principles that are non-overridable; they should never be violated.
What is ethical egoism?
Everyone ought to perform the act that best serves their own self-interest.
What is utilitarianism?
The right thing to do is whatever gives the best consequences for the most people.
What is deontological ethics?
Actions are determined right or wrong by the nature of the act itself.
What is deontological intuitionism?
We discover the correct fundamental moral principles by Intellectual Intuition.
What is the Divine Command Theory (non-semantic version)?
moral laws issue from God’s reason or nature.
What are three things students should do to ensure that they are not indoctrinated by their teachers?
- 1. Listen with a healthy wariness of what the teacher says. Teachers often say false things.
- 2. Be willing to question the teacher.
- 3. Consult information outside the class.
How has knowledge traditionally been defined?
Knowledge has traditionally been defined as justified true belief.
What is the difference between 'a priori' and 'a posteriori' knowledge?
- 'a priori' - Knowledge that comes to us independent of sense experience.
- 'a posteriori' - Knowledge that comes to us from sense experience, through the
- five senses.
What is rationalism?
- Reason (not sense experience) is the primary and best source of knowledge about reality.
- Sense experience is an unreliable form of knowledge and an inadequate explanation for knowledge.
- The fundamental truths about the world can be known a priori through innate ideas.
What is empiricism?
- The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience.
- Reason that is not grounded in experience is unreliable.
- There are no innate ideas as the rationalist’s claim.
What is the Correspondence Theory of Truth?
A proposition is true if it corresponds to the facts.
5 Suggestions given for helping one find the truth:
- Being aware of our potential emotional biases.
- Being aware of the background beliefs of people we get information from.
- Being aware of the opposing view’s arguments.
- Getting the opposing view directly from those who hold it.
- Being willing to admit that we were wrong.
What is metaphysical materialism?
Matter and the laws of physics make up and govern all that exists.
What is reductive Materialism?
There are mental events, but it is mistaken to think of them as a separate substance. Each mental event is really identicalwithsomebrainevent.
What is dualist Interactionism?
The mind (not brain) and body, two distinct substances, interact and causally affect one another.
State the 3 potential sources of evidence for immortality:
- Philosophical Argument
- Near Death Experience
State the 4 reasons why it may be important that we develop character:
- Being highly moral would seem to have a significant effect on the well being of others.
- Developing high character gives you the best chance at a good life.
- We may simply have an obligation to be this way.
- Being moral may play a role in pleasing and knowing God, if God exists.
State the 6 suggestions for how one might create virtue in oneself:
We become virtuous by acting virtuously, examining an ideal of virtue, being aware of our tendency towards self-deceit, being aware of our tendency towards selfishness, strengthening our will, making second order commitments.
State the 3 theories of the meaning of life:
- Atheistic Humanism