current issues

  1. what is foodways?
    • ways in which humans use food
    • -how its selected, obtained, distrubted
    • -who prepares it, serves it, eats it
  2. factors effecting foods that are eaten
    • omnivire paradox
    • dis. not one single food that can do it all
    • adv. variety
    • --
    • self identity
    • symbolic use of food (bread and wine)
    • culture identity - beyond self identity
  3. what is culture?
    origin, lifestyle, traditions, values, beliefs, attitudes and practices accepted by members of a group or community
  4. what is ethnicity?
    • social identity associated with shared behavior patterns
    • -food habits
    • -dress
    • -language
    • -family structure
    • -religious affilation
  5. what is acculturation?
    • process when people from one ethnicity to an area with different culture norms
    • -adapt to new majority society
  6. what is cultural competency?
    familiarity with the food habits of a particular culture, as well as recognition of variation within culture
  7. What are trends in cultural diversity?
    • food habits
    • food culture
    • foodways
    • -how its selected, obtained, distributed
    • -who serves it, prepares it, eats it
  8. for nutrition and food habits there is a need for cultural competency, why?
    • healthcare, nutrition research, assessment, counseling, education
    • -growing diversity in U.S population
  9. when it comes to ethnicity and health what are the main concerns?
    • SES
    • acculturation
    • risk and disparities
    • ex) type 2 diabetes and infant mortality
  10. for intercultural nutrition with data collection and nutrition assessment what are some things to avoid?
    • assumptions
    • terminology
    • nutritional jargon
    • stereotyping
  11. how to improve cultural competency?
    • make observations
    • participate in community activities
    • consider cultural perspective
  12. how to classify food habits by nutritional impact?
    • food use with positive benefits
    • food use that is neutral
    • food behaviors with demonstratable harmful effects
    • unclassifable
  13. things to be respectful of culturally based on food habits and other considerations?
    • -cultural definitions of health and sickness
    • -intercultural communication - verbal and nonverbal and personal space
    • -time orientation (time zones - how time is followed)
    • -language
  14. Balkans and middle eastern
    illnesses use what types of foods?
    high incidence of what?
    type of diet ususally that prevents cardiovascular issues?
    disease prevelant in arab men?
    • "hot" and "cold" foods
    • lactose intolerance
    • mediterranean diet = high monounsaturated fats
    • type 2 diabetes
  15. Judism:
    what is Kashrut?
    what is Kosher?
    • jewish dietary laws
    • means "fit"
  16. What are some categories of Jewish Dietary Laws?
    • which animals are permitted
    • method of slaughtering animals
    • forbidden animal parts
    • preparation of meat
    • law of meat and milk
  17. Mormon:
    what is diet based on?
    eat what sparingly?
    • diet based on grains
    • meat
  18. 7-Day Adventists
    dietary restrictions?
    typical diet?
    • no meat
    • Lacto-ova-veg
  19. Islam/Muslim:
    what are there food laws?
    what is Halal?
    what is Haram?
    • Halal and Haram
    • permitted foods
    • unlawful/prohibited foods
  20. Hinduism:
    what are their dietary practices?
    • avoid foods that hamper body
    • cow is sacred
    • pork- avoid
    • abstain from drinking alcohol
  21. what is food science?
    displine intergrating biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering
  22. what is food technology?
    • application of food science
    • -food selection, perservatiom, processing
  23. what are some applications of food technology?
    • market analysis
    • -quality control
    • -food safety
    • -large scale process
  24. what are traditional methods of food technology?

    what are modern methods of food technology?
    cooking and salting

    freezing, canning, drying, molecular cuisine, sous vide
  25. What are the differences between a RD and food scientist?
    • FS-design labels
    • develop new food products

    RD- expert in MNT
  26. what is molecular cuisine?
    trend in food, food science to make foods
  27. what is sous vide?
    is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for longer than normal cooking times
  28. what is celiac disease?
    immunologically toxic reaction to consumption to gluten
  29. what is dermatitis herpetiformis?
    itchy, blistering skin condition regarded as a form of CD
  30. what are some nutritional issues related to celiac diet education?

    How to intervene or solve?
    • contamination - use own utinsels
    • overlooked sources of gluten - read labels
    • malabsorption- address symptoms
    • vitamin and mineral def. - get nutrients from other sources
  31. what are the symptoms of celiac disease?

    what is the gold standard?
    diarrhea, ab. pain, bloat, gas + wt. loss and poor growth

    biopsy of small intestine mucosa
  32. Celiac Disease:

    what aids in the diagnosis?

    what indicates need for biopsy?

    how is genetic testing done?
    antibodies- indicates need for biopsy

    blood test

    specific genes associated with CD are tested
  33. Celiac Disease:

    for the biopsy what is needed?
    when is the antibody test only effective?
    what does a positive genetic test result mean?
    • eat gluten 4-8 weeks before
    • when eating gluten
    • at risk of disease
  34. what is the tx of celiac disease?

    what happens if left untreated?
    • lifelong gluten free diet
    • -vili will return to normal
    • -refractory celiac disease can occur

    nutritional deficiancy, intestinal cancers, neurolical disorder, reproductive complications, other autoimmune diseases
  35. Celiac Disease:
    what are the grains to avoid?

    what are some hidden sources of gluten?
    wheat, rye, barley, malt, bulgar

    medication, toothpaste, cross contamination
  36. Celiac Disease:

    what are allowed grains?
    rice, corn, potatoe, flax, soy
  37. Celiac Disease:

    4 areas to address when conducting diet education for CD patients?
    • explain CD
    • food avoid/allowed
    • resources
    • label reading
    • nutritional issues
  38. what are the top 10 functional food trends by Institue of food technologists
    • real food nutrition
    • mini managers
    • buying into bioavaliablity
    • protein power
    • plant based diets
    • gourmet nutrition
    • risk awareness on the rise
    • first aid
    • kids, dads, grandparents
    • liquidation
  39. top 10 functional food trends:
    real food nutrition?
    • more food, less from supplements
    • clean
    • less processed
  40. top 10 functional food trends:
    mini managers?
    • small steps to change diet
    • healthier verisons
    • ex) more whole grains
  41. top 10 functional food trends:
    buying into bioavailability?
    • how effective nutrients are to get what they want
    • ex)vitamins
  42. top 10 functional food trends:
    protein power?
    • adequete protein
    • directed toward seniors
  43. top 10 functional food trends:
    plant based diets?
    • whole grains/high fiber
    • fruit and veggies- trying to include more
    • limit meat intake
  44. top 10 functional food trends:
    gourmet nutrition?
    • popular dishes
    • local meat and seafood
    • sustainability
    • breakfast foods- complex & variety
    • low sodium
    • fresh refriderator food
  45. top 10 functional food trends:
    risk awareness on the rise?
    • urinary and cardivascular claims
    • aware among the young- heart healthy products, preventionm, mental health, diabetes
  46. top 10 functional food trends:
    first aid?
    • probiotics
    • functional foods instead of medicine
    • gluten free
    • stress relief and relaxation
    • immune system concerns
  47. top 10 functional food trends:
    kids, dads, grandparents?
    • growing products - decrease in fiber, increase in probiotics
    • calcium, vit. d, vit. c
    • biggest concerns: cholestrol, wt, heart health, mental, eye health
    • mens impulse buys: snack foods, cereal, ice cream
  48. top 10 functional food trends:
    • beverages up in sales
    • trends: gut health, immunity, heart health
    • other concerns: calcium, vit, min, antioxidants, green tea
  49. Native Americans:

    high incidence of ?
    ____ prevelant
    • lactose intolerance
    • alcoholism, obesity and diabetes
  50. Africans:
    ___ is essential to culture
    ____ products uncommon
    • religion
    • pork, pork products, corn, greens, soul food
    • dairy products
  51. Africans: Health Problems:

    • calcium, iron, calories, some vit.
    • obesity, type 2 diabetes
  52. Mexicans:
    _____ largest non-euro ethnic group in U.S
    ____ is factor
    few ___ products are used because of what?
    higher rates of disease:
    • latinos
    • SES
    • dairy - lactose intolerant
    • pnemonia, flu, TB, obesity
  53. Filipino:
    ____ fat
    types of fat used:
    • lactose
    • rice
    • higher
    • lard, cooking oil, monkey
  54. Mainland SE Asian:



    illness's are classified how?
    • lactose
    • rice
    • hot and cold
  55. Filipino: Nutritional Issues:
    • type 2 diabetes
    • lactose
  56. Mainland SE Asians: Nutritional Issues:

    diseases in recent immigrants?
  57. Healthcare systems:
    reliance on ?
    US spends alot more on?
    • private sector
    • gov't based programs

    • cost
    • access
    • levels of healthcare

    health care compared to other countries
  58. Healthcare systems: Trends/Challenges:

    • hospitalized
    • -higher level of core required for one hospital

    • traditionally an acute, care system
    • -treat problem only
  59. Levels of Healthcare systems?
    • prevenative and primary care
    • secondary and tertiarty care
    • restorative and long term care
  60. Healthcare systems: Secondary and Tertiary care:
    focus on?

    facilities that focus on this?
    • diagnosis and tx
    • acute care
    • tertiary care - organ transplate unit

    • traditional hospitals
    • physicians
    • ER
  61. Healthcare systems: Nutrition therapy:
    focus on?

    facilities that focus on this?
    • specific disease tx
    • restorative care
    • care for recovery

    long term care- rehab
  62. Healthcare systems: Long term care:
    what is it?

    nutrition services?
    maintenance,custodial and health services for chronically ill or disabled

    patients at nutritonal risk
  63. Healthcare systems: health care financing:
    based on?
    • health insurance
    • -private (most)
    • -public (medicaid, medicare)
  64. what is health insurance?
    financial protection against health care cost
  65. what is CMS?
    centers for medicare and medicaid services
  66. Which part of Medicare covers MNT?
    what health conditions are covered?
    what is the requirement that must be met for MNT to be covered?
    • Part B
    • diabetes, renal failure-no dialysis, post kidney
    • BS or up + >900 hours practice and licensed
  67. Healthcare systems: Medicare: part A
    works with hospital how?

    Part B:
    • 65+ or end stage renal disease, social security disability
    • hospital in patient charges are reimbursed

    • medical insurance
    • optional program
    • outpatient services
  68. Healthcare systems: Medicaid:
    federal but each state has own program

    • low incomes or disabilities
    • nutritional services-depends on state
  69. Issues currently facing the U.S healthcare system?
    • the unisured
    • high costs of heath care
    • aging population
    • higher levels of care required
  70. Healthcare systems: The uninsured:

    usually who?

    expensive forms of health care what happens?
    • employed - small company, self employed
    • results- cost shift to insured
  71. Healthcare systems: Healthcare reform law:
    cant be denied when?
    who has it now?
    everyone gets it when?
    insurance cant?
    • for pre-exsisting condition
    • children
    • 2014
    • drop you when you get sick
  72. Healthcare systems:
    what are Health disparities?
    poorer health for some racial and ethnic groups= infant mortality, mortality

    • access to healthcare
    • SES
    • prevelance of risk factors
  73. what is patient centered health care?
    health care team led by patients personal physician
  74. Marshall Islands:
    what are some outside factors that have impacted the health of the people from these islands?
    Is nutrition relevant to any of these factors?
    nuclear testing, displacement, change in diet, overcrowding, poverty, poor nutritional status, TB easily spread

    population became urbanized- poor sanitation
  75. Summerize the BMI formula?

    strengths and weaknesses of using BMI ?

    should BMI be part of routine health assessment?
    weight divided by height squared

    • s-cheap and easy
    • w- doesnt use frame size, ignores gender

    yes in combination with waist circumference
  76. what is life expectancy?

    how has life expectancy changed over last 50-60 years

    does body wt have impact on longevity?
    amount of years estimated to live

    education increase, technology

    longevity has strong genetic componant
  77. what is food desert?

    four objectives outlined by the Task force on childhood obesity?

    will "lets move" be effective enough to tackle the problem of childhood obesity?
    areas with limited access to affordable, quality, nutritious food

    • ensure access to healthy, affordable food
    • increase physical activity
    • provide healthier food in schools
    • empower parents with information

    More resources are needed along with more backup from other people
  78. How is economics connected to nutrition?
    • food marketing
    • food costs
    • access to food
    • supply and demand of food
  79. Name some themes of issues in nutrition and dietetics?
    • probiotics and prebiotics
    • organic food
    • low fat foods
    • increase in grains and vegetables
Card Set
current issues