Identify the key concepts for defining personality.
traits: characteristics, dispositional tendency to act a certain way over time and across circumstances
Describe the psychodynamic approach to personality
- emphasizes unconscious and dynamic processes (such as wishes and motives), posits that they influence behavior
- instincts are mental representations arising from physical or mental needs
- pleasure principle: people work to increase pleasure and decrease pain (driven by libido)
Identify the key components of the typographical
model of mind.
mind is structured into three zones of mental awareness: conscious, preconscious, unconscious
- Ice Burg:
- Preconscious: Superego & Ego
Identify and distinguish the three main aspects of
the structural model of personality
- id, superego, ego
- id: component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious, operates by the pleasure principle (sex, aggression)
- superego: brake on id, internalization of social and parental standards of conduct (morality, conscience)
- ego: mediate between superego and id, tries to satisfy id, but obey superego, operates on reality principle, rational thought and problem solving
What does a person-centered approach involve?
Carl Rogersemphasizes patient self understandingexamines impact of conditional parental love vs. unconditional positive regard, the latter thought to lead to a fully functioning person
Describe the type/trait approach to personality
- Traits: behavioral dispositions that endure over time and across situations
- Typologies: discrete categories in which we place people (Lecture) (“he/she is not my type”)
Explain implicit personality theory
implicit personality theory is the study of two tendencies related to personality types: We tend to assume that certain personality characteristics go together. Because of that assumption, we tend to make predictions about people based on minimal evidence.
Identify the Big-Five personality traits (OCEAN).
- openness to experience
Distinguish between internal and external locus of control.
- internal locus of control: you control the events that affect you (the person believes they can control their life)
- External locus of control: meaning they believe that their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors (external) which they cannot influence
Describe the cognitive-social approach to personality.
These theories emphasize how personal beliefs, expectancies, and interpretations of social situations shape behavior and personality.
Distinguish between idiographic and nomothetic
- Idiographic Approaches: Person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons.
- Nomothetic Approaches: Approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traits.
Identify key projective tests.
- personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
- The Rorschach Inkblot Test: one of the first projective tests and continues to be one of the best-known. Developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921, the test consists of 10 different cards that depict an ambiguous inkblot. The participant is shown one card at a time and asked to describe what he or she sees in the image. The responses are recorded verbatim by the tester. Gestures, tone of voice and other reactions are also noted. The results of the test can vary depending on which of the many existing scoring systems the examiner uses.
- The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): individual is asked to look at a series of ambiguous scenes, asked to tell a story describing the scene, including what is happening, how the characters are feeling and how the story will end. The examiner then scores the test based on the needs, motivations and anxieties of the main character as well as how the story eventually turns out.
Describe key features of projective measures.
personality test in which the individual offers responses to ambiguous scenes, words or images.
Describe key features of objective measures.
relatively direct assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionnaires or observer ratings
Identify key objective tests.
- NEO personality inventory
- California Q-Sort
Distinguish between strong and weak situations.
- situationalism: theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits
- -a “stronger” situation will be more predictive based on centrality, aggregation, and type
Identify and distinguish between the three main
components of temperament.
- Activity Level: the overall amount of energy and behavior a person exhibits.
- Emotionality: the intensity of emotional reactions
- Sociability: the general tendency to affiliate with others
How does self-awareness influence personality?
- -you have an objectified self (object known, “me”) which researchers differentiated from the knower (“I”)
- -people act in accordance with their perceived personal values and beliefs
- -we look for differences in ourselves between behavior and personal standards
According to the sociometer theory where does self-esteem come from?
- -An internal monitor of social acceptance (high self-esteem) or rejection (low self-esteem)
- -Monitors the likelihood of social exclusion
Describe three ways that people carry positive illusions about the self.
- Self-evaluative maintenance: People can feel threatened when someone close to them outperforms them on a task that is personally relevant. To maintain self-esteem, you would either distance yourself from the relationship or select a different aspiration
- Social comparisons: People evaluate their own actions, abilities, and beliefs by contrasting them with those of others
- Self-serving biases: People with high self-esteem tend to take credit for success but blame failure on outside factors. Criticism is assumed by those with high self-esteem to be motivated by envy or prejudice
unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress
mediates between superego and id, tries to satisfy id but obey superego; operates on reality principle; rational thought and problem solving
the idea that personality can be described using five factors: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems; they propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential.
in psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle.
Person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons.
Theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by situations and underlying dispositions.
Approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traits.
Relatively direct assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionnaires or observer ratings.
The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances.
A characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances.
Discrete categories based on global personality characteristics.
personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli (Rorsarch, TAT test)
Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior.
According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges.
The tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors.
The theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits.
An internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection.
internalization of social and parental standards of conduct (morality, conscience)
Biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways.
an approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions (ex. socialibility, cheerfulness, and aggression)