How attitudes guide behavior?
strong/more specific attitudes are more predictive of behaviors
Explain the mere exposure effect and why it operates
the more experience you have with something, the more you like it
What are the three components of attitudes?
- Affect: how you feel
- Cognition: what you believe and perceive
- Behavioral predispositions: how you are predisposed to act
Distinguish between implicit and explicit attitudes?
- Implicit attitude: influence feelings/behavior at an unconscious level
- Explicit attitude: those you know about and can report to others
What is cognitive dissonance?
an uncomfortable mental state due to conflicts between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior
How does cognitive dissonance relate to decisions and justification?
Once a decision is made between the two conflicting ideas the individual focuses on all of the positives of the chosen and all the negatives of the other.
Distinguish between the central and peripheral routes to persuasion in Elaboration Likelihood Model.
- Elaboration Likelihood Model: theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes.
- central route: people pay attention to arguments, consider all the information
- peripheral route: people minimally process message, take more impulsive action
Identify the cues that influence a message's persuasiveness.
- source (who delivers the message)
- content (what the message says)
- receiver (who processes the message)
I dentify forms of nonverbal behavior
- facial expressions
Distinguish between personal and situational attributions.
- personal attributions: explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and efforts (things are your “fault”)
- situational attributions: explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or actions of other people (things are the “fault” of something else)
Explain the fundimental attribution error
frequency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining OTHERS’ behaviors
Distinguish between the fundimental attribution error and actor-observer error
Actor-observer has to do with us blaming others bahviors on their personality and our own behaviors on the situation we are in, and findimental attribution has to do only with others and not with ourselves.
What is the purpose of a stereotype?
They allow for easy, fast processing of information about people based on their membership in certain groups
Distinguish between the three components of prejudice (stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination).
- stereotypes: attitudes and beliefs (schemas) about groups (not behavior)
- prejudice: affective or attitudinal response associated with stereotypes, usually involving negative judgements about people because of group membership
- discrimination: unjustified and inappropriate treatment of people as a result of prejudice
How can stereotypes influence perceptions?
You can perceive characteristics of people in a group based on your generalization about ALL members of the group, regardless of actual variation
Explain how superordinate goals and the jigsaw classroom can reduce prejudice?
- superordinate goals: cooperation can reduce prejudice (ex. the boys at the camp)
- jigsaw classroom: (Eliot Aronson) pupils are divided into small groups, mixed by race and by ability, to work co-operatively on a task, each student has a specific job
What does Asch's conformity study find?
People desire to conform to those around them, rather than being “right”
Out of three lines which one is the same size as the one on the left, conform to the other peoples answer, even though they are obviously wrong.
Describe Milgram's obedience to authority study.
Subjects were instructed to “teach” a “learner” (who they think is a subject, but who is an experimenter) who is answering questions in another room by pressing a button that will deliver an electric shock to the “learner”. They hear the screams of the “learner” but most people (60%) continued pushing the button even to the highest shock level
Describe the frusteration-aggression hypothesis.
extent of frustration predicts aggression; more frustrated, probably more angry, and more aggression as a result.
Explain why the bystander effect occurs?
- the failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need
- less likely to help when there are more bystanders
- it’s a type of conformity-- if most people aren’t helping, you aren’t likely to either
- contextual clues are big indicators of whether someone will help, ie fancy suit v. less affluent clothing/appearance as a drunk or transient
Describe how proximity, similarity, and familiarity promote relationships.
- proximity is best predictor of relationship
- similarity: matching interests, attitudes, values, background, personality
- familiarity: it is comfortable, so you will likely pick a mate that looks like you (or a dog!)
Identify desirable physical and personal characteristics for relationships.
What makes faces more attractive?
- Women: large eyes, small nose, small chin. prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils, big smile
- Men: large eyes, prominent cheekbones, large chin, big smile
scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors are influenced by real or imagined presence of others
people lose identity when they are part of a group
explanations for behavior based on internal feelings, thoughts, beliefs
any behavior or action that involves the intention to harm someone else
the inappropriate or unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership
The active and conscious effort to change attitudes through the transmission of a message.
The providing of help when it is needed, without any appearant reward for doing so
the evaluation of objects, events, or ideas
people’s causal explanations for why events or actions occur
Bystander Intervention Effect
the failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need
discomfort caused when action doesn’t match one’s conception of oneself
the tendency to agree to do things requested by others
attitudes that people can report
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior.
the extent to which people feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that they will act aggressively
attitudes that influence feelings and behavior at an unconscious level
The tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup.
The usually negative affective or attitudinal responses associated with stereotypes.
tending to benefit others.
People's tendency to behave in that confirm their own or others' expectations.
Explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or the actions of other people.
When the mere presence of others enhances performance.
people will work less hard in a group where individual effort cannot be identified
Expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior.
the altering of one’s opinions or behaviors to match those of others to match social norms
The facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others.
Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of information about people based on their membership in certain groups.