Sociology Exam

  1. Sociology definition
    • the scientific study of social structure and human groups
    • relationship between social institutions, society, and people's attitudes and behaviors
  2. Anthropology definition
    past cultures, preindustrial societies, origins of humans
  3. Economics definition
    production and exchange of goods and services
  4. History definition
    past people and events and their influences on us today
  5. Political Science definition
    organization, administration and theory of government
  6. Psychology definition
    development and function of mental and emotional processes in human beings
  7. Auguste Comte
    • scientific observation (positivism)
    • "Father of Sociology"
  8. Harriet Martineau
    • British scholar who translated Comte into English
    • Lost hearing as a child
    • Wrote Society in America (1837)
    • Pioneering feminist theoriest
    • "Mother of Sociology"
  9. Karl Marx overview
    • History of class conflict
    • Bourgeoisie and proletarist
    • critiqued capitalism
    • called for revolution
    • The Communist Manifesto (1848)
    • Capita (1867)
  10. Talcott Parsons (overview)
    • Harvard Professor
    • Functionalism (theory)
    • Proposed Grand Theory (big enough to explain everything)
    • Leading figure in American sociology during the middle of the 20th century
  11. Robert Merton (overview)
    • Expanded functionalism
    • Student of Parson
    • Studied deviant behavior and crime
  12. W.E.B. DuBois
    • Harvard, First Black to earn Ph.D. there
    • Focused on conditions for Black Americans
    • NAACP founded 1909
  13. Theory definition
    • a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior
    • an abstract predictive statement that explains why and how certain things happen
  14. Functionalism Emphasis
    functions, order and integration, stability and cooperation
  15. Functionalism Origins
    Europe, 1800s (Spencer & Durkheim)
  16. Functionalism Theorists
    Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, Herbert Spencer
  17. Functionalism Criticism
    too conservative and protects the status quo
  18. Conflict Theory Emphasis
    Inequality, stratification, competition, conflict, power and oppression change
  19. Conflict Theory Origins
    Europe 1800s, (Marx and Weber)
  20. Conflict Theory Theorists
    Karl Marx, W.E.B. DuBois, C. Wright Mills
  21. Conflict Theory Criticism
    All of life is viewed as a struggle for power and money
  22. Ideology
    ideas that are seen to protect the interests and actions of those in power
  23. Feminist Theory Definition
    a branch of conflict theory focusing on inequality and oppression among women
  24. Interactionism Emphasis
    Everday life, face-to-face interaction, symbols, roles, personal experience and interpretations 
  25. Interactionism Origins
    America, early 1900s (Univ. of Chicago)
  26. Interactionism Theorists
    George H. Mead, Herbert Blumer, Erving Goffman
  27. Interactionsim Criticism
    Focused more on individual (psych) than society
  28. Symbols
    representation of something else (an object, word, gesture, sound, etc)
  29. Interpretations
    are varied, depnding on the behaviors and situations they observe
  30. Social psychology
    where sociology and psychology overlap
  31. Macrosociology
    study of entire societies and their social structure
  32. Microsociology
    study of people as they interact in daily life
  33. Scientific Method
    • used by all branches of science
    • a systematic, organized series of steps that uses careful observation and consistent measurments to research a problem
  34. Culture definition
    People's way of life that is passed on from generation to generation consistency of physical objects as well as patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  35. Society
    group of poeple living in a defined territory and participation in a common culture
  36. Innovation
    discovery/ invention
  37. Diffusion
    spread of an item or idea from one society to another
  38. Globalization
    worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through contact and trade
  39. language
    abstract system of word, meanings, and symbols (including gestures and other nonverbal communication) for all aspects of culture
  40. Norms
    rules defining appropriate or inappropriate behaviors maintained by society
  41. Formal norms
    norms written into laws or rules
  42. Informal norms
    widely understood, but rarely recorded
  43. Sanctions
    punishments or rewards used to encourage conformity to norms
  44. Values
    broad cultural principles that most people in society consider desirable
  45. ethnocentrism
    viewing one's own culture as superiors to all others
  46. xenocentrisms
    viewing one's culture as inferior to others
  47. cultural relativism
    viewing people's behaviors from the perspective of their own culture
  48. Socialization
    • "The process of learnign to participate in group life through the acquisition of culture
    • process of being made social; learning the norms of society
  49. Charles Horton Cooley Socialization Emphasis
    How do we develope a self-concept
  50. Charles Horton Cooley Socialization Key Concept
    Looking-glass self, wherein we develop our sense of self through social interactions with others. We preceive or imagine, how others judge us
  51. George Herbert Mead Socialization Emphasis
    How we learn to interact with others
  52. George Herbet Mead Socialization Key Concepts
    • Roles taking, which results from a 3 stage process
    • Imitation Stage
    • The Play Stage
    • The Game Stage
  53. Imitation Stage
    Children, approx age 2, imitate significant others and begin to udnerstand symbols such as language and gestures
  54. Play stage
    children, approx. age 3 or 4, pretend to be another person to act out that role
  55. The Game Stage
    children, at 8 or 9, begin to understand several other's roles and responsibility making games possible
  56. Erving Goffman Socialization Emphasis
    how we present self to others in "every day life" situations
  57. Erving Goffman Socialization Key Concept
    Dramaturgy, wherein human interaction is seen as theatrical performance on a stage, and we are the actors with roles
  58. Impression Management
    The manipulation of scenery, props, costumes, and behavior to convey a particular role image to others
  59. Studied Nonobservance
    pretending not to notice mistakes people make in their role performance
  60. Professional Crime
    Career Criminals with status among peers
  61. Organized Crime
    the coordination of work between various criminal groups
  62. White-collar crime
    illegal acts committed by affluent people in their business activities
  63. Victimless crime
    when willing adults exchange desired, but illegal goods or services
  64. Endomorph body types
    soft and round
  65. Mesomorphs body type
    muscular and hard
  66. Ectomorphs body types
    lean and fragile
  67. Control Theory
    • Travis Hirschi
    • Attachments and commitment (investments) to other people lead us to conform to society's norms
    • we are socialized to conform
    • Deviance results from lack of socialization or lack of attachments
    • Weakness: all longer are not deviant
  68. Differential Association Theory
    • Edwin Sutherland
    • One learns deviant behavior through interactions with others
    • also known as Deviant Attachment Theory
    • Weakness: where does it begin
  69. Strain theory
    • Robert K Merton
    • People want success and have goals
    • No legitimate means to reach those goals results in strain, thus they turn to crime
    • Weakness: white collar crime
  70. Labeling Theory
    • Deviance results when one is labeled and stigmatized as deviant
    • Weakness: all labels don't lead here
  71. Social Controls
    • means for promoting conformity to the norms
    • all collective efforts to ensure conformity to society's norms
  72. Detterence Method
    • Jack Gibbs
    • The more rapid, certain, and severe the punishment for a crime, the lower the rate at which such crimes will occur
    • The goal is to punish as a lesson and vivid reminder to others
  73. Reform Methods/ Rehabilitation
    The aim is to change the behavior and resocialize the criminal to become a productive citizen
  74. Recidivism Rate
    repeat offenders who when released from prisons are sentenced to prison once again (usually within 3 yrs.)
  75. Social Inequality
    having different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power in society
  76. Social Stratification
    The creation of layers (strata) of a population who possess unequal shares of income, wealth, power, and prestige
  77. Class
    • group of people who share a similar economic strata, values, and lifestyle
    • also used for those who share a common position in any social stratification system
    • primarily an econimic term
  78. Social Mobility
    movement of individuals or gourps within a stratification structure
  79. Horizontal mobility
    movement to another occupation at the same general status level
  80. Vertical population
    movement up or down in job status
  81. Intergenerational mobility
    changes in status from one generation to the next
  82. Intragenerational mobility
    changes in one's own career
  83. Karl marx Stratification Theory
    • critque on capitalism
    • Economics is society's independent variable, influnceing all alse
    • rich exploit poor
    • revolution is needed
    • utopia will result (classless society)
  84. Marx Weber Stratification Theory
    • 3 factors: class, status, power
    • Economics is society's dependent variable, the consequence of other factors
  85. Functionalist Stratification Theory
    stratification is inevitable because certain jobs are more important and require more training. Thus, those jobs promise higher rewards
  86. Conflict Stratification Theory
    Stratification isn't inevitable, but results from capitalism and the misuse of power. Those in power protect the status quo
  87. Race
    a group with similar biological and visible physical characteristics
  88. Ethnicity
    sharing common origins, culture, and language
  89. Minority
    a group with less power than the majority
  90. Minority Group characteristics
    • Distinctive physical or cultural traits
    • Less access to power and resources
    • Unequal treatment, usually measured by economics and education
    • Shared identity due to discrimination
    • Ascribed status
  91. Prejudice
    a negative or biased attitude toward an entire group and it's members
  92. Racism
    a type of prejudice that maintains one race is superior and its members
  93. Discrimination
    a behavior that denies equal treatment, opportunities and rights based on minority membership
  94. Institutionalized Discrimination
    the result of unfair practices that are part of the structure of society and have become traditionally accepted behaviors
  95. Allport's Theory of Contact
    • Contact alone is not enough
    • Equal status is necessary
    • Cooperation, not competition is required
  96. 1964 Civil Rights Movement
    prohibits discrimination in public accomodations and services on the bases of race, color, creed, national origin, and gender
  97. Affirmative Action
    efforts to recruit minorities for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
  98. Amalgamation
    all groups combine to form a new group
  99. Assimilation
    giving up one's cultural traditions to conform to the dominant group cultures
  100. Accomadation (pluralism)
    all groups coexist with mutual respect
  101. Sex Ratio
    the number of males per 100 females in society
  102. Sex
    biological difference
  103. Gender
    social or cultural differences
  104. Males
    • Provide
    • Protect
    • Build
  105. Females
    • Bearing and caring for children
    • Care of home
    • food preparation
  106. Family of orientation
    the family into which a person is born and/or raised
  107. family of procreation
    the family one establishes upon marriagw
  108. Nuclear family
     parents and children (2 generations)
  109. Extended Family
    nuclear family and their blood relatives (more than two generations)
  110. Family definition
    a gorup of 2 or more related by birth, marriage, or adoption, and residing together
  111. Functionalism Family Theories
    • Functions and norms of family
    • Social stability
  112. Conflict Family Theories
    Inequality, injustice and male dominance
  113. Interactionism Family Theory
    Family interactions, roles and socialization
  114. Marriage
    socially-sanctioned monogamous and heterosexual union that is intended to be permanent
  115. Intimate Partner definition
    boyfriends, cohabitors, ex-spouses, and same-sex partner are all included
  116. Secularization
    the process by which religion gradually disappears and religious organizations become more worldly
  117. Census
    a count of the population
  118. Primary Historical purposes of a census
    • assess tax revenue
    • determine military strength
    • Determine government representation (in the U.S.)
  119. crude birth rate
    the number of live births in a year per 1,000 people in the population
Card Set
Sociology Exam
Sociology Exam