1. An animal with damage to the ________ will fail to display a conditioned emotional change in blood pressure.
  2. According to Darwin, the expressions of emotion in humans
    evolved from similar expressions in other animals.
  3. Physiological studies of emotions have focused on
    anger and fear.
  4. A conditioned emotional response involves the pairing of a ________ with a(n) ________.
    neutral stimulus; aversive emotion-inducing stimulus
  5. According to the James-Lange theory, feelings of emotions are
    produced by feedback from the behaviors and physiological responses caused by emotion-producing situations.
  6. Seizures that involve the ________ hemisphere are most likely to induce ________.
    right; emotional disorder
  7. Damage to the human amygdala
  8. The _______ is critical for the ______ of emotion.
    central nucleus of the amygdala; expression
  9. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is comprised of
  10. Which statement best illustrates the James-Lange theory of emotion?
  11. Electrical stimulation of the ________ induces a feeling of fear in humans.
  12. Studies by Ekman and colleagues suggest that
  13. Left hemisphere is to right hemisphere as comprehension of words is to
  14. The physical changes responsible for classical conditioning take place in the
    lateral nucleus of the amygdala.
  15. Which of the following
    best describes the changes produced by damage involving the prefrontal
    cortex in the patient described by Eslinger and Damasio (1985)?
  16. Moral judgments that involve deciding to harm another person _______ activity within the _______.
  17. A general function of the prefrontal cortex may be to
    dampen or inhibit emotional reactions.
  18. Excessive anger that
    results in murder may reflect a combination of inadequate activation of
    the ________ and enhanced activation of the ________.
    prefrontal cortex; amygdala
  19. The amygdala is involved in the recognition of ________ communicated via ________.
    fear; facial expression
  20. An example of a species-typical defensive response for a rat is
    freezing of motor movements.
  21. Rats previously exposed
    to a tone followed by a brief electrical shock will show ________ when
    subsequently exposed to the tone (without shock).
    an unconditional emotional response
  22. The ________ nucleus of the ________ is important for the expression of emotional responses to aversive stimuli.
    central; amygdala
  23. Which of the following is a career option in which a person with damage to the amygdala would have a selective advantage?
  24. Activation of the ________ elicits various behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses.
    central nucleus of the amygdala
  25. Which of the following is true of the role of the amygdala in recognition of emotion?
    Amygdala damage impairs the ability to use facial expressions for emotion recognition.
  26. Imagine that you are
    suffering from overly intense emotional reactions that conventional
    therapies do not alleviate. Based on the evidence cited in your text,
    which brain region would be considered as a target for ablation to
    provide relief for your intense emotional reactions?
    central nucleus of the amygdala
  27. PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion from tone of voice is associated with increased activity of the
    right prefrontal cortex.
  28. After damage to her ______, Patient I.R. showed impaired ability to _______.
  29. Neurons within the ______ are important for the extinction of a CER.
    ventromedial prefrontal cortex
  30. According to the
    James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is most important
    for the subjective experience of an emotion?
  31. The ________ integrates the components that comprise the emotion of fear.
  32. The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by research in which
    the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures.
  33. The recognition of emotions expressed by others is most likely to be impaired after damage to the
    right hemisphere.
  34. The central nucleus of
    the amygdala is the most important part of the brain for the expression
    of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli.
  35. According to the text author, which of the following is a recent evolutionary development?
  36. Which of the following drugs would be expected to inhibit aggression?
    fluoxetine (Prozac)
  37. Which of the following statements is true of facial emotional expression?
  38. The components of an emotional response include
    behavior, autonomic activity, and hormonal secretions.
  39. The capacity of a person to express an emotion using method acting would be impaired if that person suffered from
    emotional facial paresis.
  40. The treatment of
    impulsive aggression using ________ for 12 weeks reduced aggression and
    also ________ the activity of the orbitofrontal cortex.
    fluoxetine; increased
  41. Animal studies indicate that the effect of serotonin on aggression may reflect a more general effect of serotonin on
    risky behaviors.
  42. A key function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex may be to
  43. For animals exposed to stress, damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala would be expected to ________.
  44. Imagine that all members
    of your class have been tested to determine the level of 5-HIAA in their
    cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using
    this information?
    Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels will be more aggressive than those with high levels.
  45. In experiments by LeDoux on classically conditioned emotional responses, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by
  46. A child who has a
    ________ level of ________ in their CSF will be expected to be more
    likely to have the potential for crimes such as assault, arson, and
  47. The text author asserts that ________ have key consequences for survival and reproduction.
    emotional behaviors
  48. Feelings of fear are produced by electrical stimulation of the human amygdala.
  49. Which of the following would be expected in a rat after infusion of glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala?
  50. People with volitional facial paresis are unable to
    voluntarily move their facial muscles.
  51. Individual neurons within the amygdala are activated by
    detection of emotionally relevant stimuli.
  52. Damage to the ________ would be expected to disrupt the integration of fear.
  53. Damage to the ________ neurons of the forebrain would be expected to ________ aggressive attack.
    serotonin; facilitate
  54. Mr. V. failed to appreciate the emotional significance of the loss of ________ after his stroke.
  55. The activity of the prefrontal cortex is ________ by ________ projection neurons.
  56. Phineas Gage, who was
    injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull,
    exhibited capricious, emotional behavior (in part) as a result of
    widespread damage to his
    orbitofrontal cortex.
  57. Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere?
    the comprehension of emotions
  58. The amygdaloid complex is
  59. Damage to the _______ would produce difficulty in recognizing facial emotion in another person.
    right amygdala
  60. In the case of patient S.P., bilateral damage to the ________ resulted in ________.
    amygdala; an inability to recognize emotion in other persons
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