Verb Tenses / Commands

  1. Present Indicative - Regular "ar", "er" & "ir" endings
    • "ar"
    • o, as, a, amos, áis, an
    • "er"
    • o, es, e, emos, éis, en

    • "ir"
    • o, es, e, imos, ís, en
  2. Pretérito - "ar" & "er/ir" endings
    • "ar"
    • é, aste, ó, amos, asteis, aron

    • "er/ir"
    • í, iste, ió, imos, isteis, ieron
  3. Imperfecto indicativo - explanation
    used to express or describe something that was incomplete, continuous, or habitual in the past.

    *There are no stem changing verbs in the imperfect indicative tense!*
  4. imperfecto indicativo endings "ar" & "er/ir"
    aba, abas, aba, ábamos, abais, aban

    ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían
  5. Imperfecto progresivo - explanation
    an alternative to the imperfecto indicativo. Used to show an action in the past that was ongoing at the time (usually relative to another action)

    estar + present participle

    ex. Ayer, mientras mi hermana estaba comiendo, yo estaba mirando la televisión.
  6. How are Past Participles formed?
    "ar" verbs end in "ado"

    "er" & "ir" verbs end in "ido"

    ex. hablado, vivido, comido
  7. Que es el perfecto de indicativo (present perfect indicative)?
    talks about the past but continues in the present. Or talks about a recently completed action.

    Haber (present) + Past Participal

    • ex. Hemos hablado - we've spoken
    • ex. Se ha lavado - she has washed herself
    • ex. La he leido - I have read it
  8. Pluscuamperfecto de indicativo (pluperfect / past perfect) - explanation
    Compound tense that refers to an action that took place before another action or event in the past.

    Haber (imperfect) + Past Participal

    Después de que ella había llegado, me llamó por teléfono.  - After she had arrived, she phoned me.
  9. Past perfect indicative of Hay
    Había habido - there had been

    ex. Había habido mucha nieve - There had been a lot of snow.
  10. Futuro tense VS el futuro perfecto - explanation
    • Futuro
    • Mañana llamaré a Marta por teléfono - Tomorrow I will phone Marta

    Futuro perfecto

    • indicates past time with respect to some point in the future.
    • ex. La semana próxima ya habrás partido. - Next week you will have left already.
  11. Futuro endings (for all verb types)

    *Irregular verbs change in stem only - their ending always remains the same
    infinitive form + the ending

    é, ás, á, emos, éis, án
  12. Forming the Future perfect tense

    ie. When will you have this done? 
    Haber (future) + past participle

    ie. Cuándo habrás hecho esto?

    Haber = will have (in the future tense)

    • habré ____
    • habrás ____
    • habrá ____
    • habremos ____
    • habréis ____
    • habrán ____
  13. Conditional tense  

    generally written as...

    I would go   -->   would + verb (in english)
    infinitive form as the

    ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían
  14. Regular positive commands in the "tu" form?
    drop the "s" from the conjugated "tu" form.

    ie.  vendes  --> Vende!  = sell!
  15. Regular negative commands in the "tu" form?
    • 1. take the present tense "yo" form of the verb
    • 2. remove the "o" to get the "yo" stem
    • 3. add the appropriate ending:

    • ar verbs --> "es"
    • er/ir verbs --> "as"

    ie. "no hables!",  "No vendas!"
  16. Irregular "tu" commands
    • decir    - di!
    • hacer   - haz!
    • ir         - ve!
    • poner  - pon!
    • salir    - sal!
    • ser      - sé!
    • tener   - ten!
    • venir   - ven!
  17. Commands in the "usted" form
    • 1. take the present tense "yo" form
    • 2. drop the "o"ending to get the "yo" stem
    • 3. add the endings:

    • "ar" verbs   --> "e"
    • "er/ir" verbs --> "a"

    ie. "Coma!", "Traiga!", "Ponga!"
  18. Commands in the "ustedes" form
    Same as the "usted" form, but add an "n" to the end.

    • infinitive - usted command - ustedes command
    • ie. ser --> sea --> sean!
    •      comer --> coma --> coman!
  19. Commands in the "vosotros" form (plural familiar)
    For all verbs (except reflexive)...

    use the infinitive from, and switch the last "r" to a "d"

    ie. Trabajad!  Bebed!  Escribid!
  20. Negative Commands in the "vosotros" form (plural familiar)
    • add "éis" to the "yo stem" of "ar" verbs
    • add "áis" to the "yo stem" of "er/ir" verbs

    ie. No trabajéis!  No bebáis!
  21. Commands in the "Nosotros" form

    ie. let's eat!  let's go!  let's write!

    (to make this negative, just add "No")
    • 1. take the present tense "yo" form
    • 2. drop the "o"ending to get the "yo" stem
    • 3. add the endings:

    • "ar" verbs   --> "emos"
    • "er/ir" verbs --> "amos"
  22. When is the subjunctive used?
    to demonstrate...

    • 1. desire:        I suggest that you buy the car
    • 2. ignorance:  I doubt that she lives here
    • 3. impersonal opinion: it's better that we sit here
    • 4. uncompleted action: We'll eat after we wash our hands
    • 5. vague/indefinite antecedent: I need a wife who is hot
    • 6. maybe/perhaps: maybe he has the money
    • 7. "even if": Even if he knows, he won't tell us
  23. Endings for the Present Subjunctive:

    1. Take the yo form of the present indicative
    2. remove the "o" ending
    3. add the following endings...
    • "ar"
    • e, es, e, emos, éis, en
    • "er/ir"
    • a, as, a, amos, áis, an
  24. Forming the imperfect subjunctive  
    (used for all undetermined writing in the past)

    1. take the "ustedes" form of the preterite verb
    2. remove the "ron" ending to get the base.
    3. add the endings...
    For all verbs...

    ra, ras, ra, ´ramos, rais, ran
  25. Formation of Conditional Perfect

    ie. He would have worked, but he was tired
    haber (conditional) + past participle

    ie. Él habría trabajado, pero estaba cansado

    • habría _____
    • habrías _____
    • habría_____
    • habríamos_____
    • habrías_____
    • habrían_____
Card Set
Verb Tenses / Commands
Verb Tenses / Commands