HSII Ch. 12

  1. heart location
    • located btwn lungs in lower portion of mediastinum
    • btwn sternum & behind thoracic cavity
  2. upper chambers & recieving chambers
  3. lower & discharging chambers
  4. inner layer of pericardium
    • visceral pericardium
    • or epicardium
  5. outer layer of pericardium
    parietal pericardium
  6. tricuspid valve location
    @ opening of R atrium into ventricle
  7. bicuspid valve locaton
    @ opening of L atrium into ventricle
  8. aortic semilunar valve location
    @ beginning of aorta
  9. pulmonary semilunar valve location
    @  beginning of pulmonary artery
  10. "lub" sound caused by
    vibration & closure of AV valves during contraction of the ventricles
  11. "dub" sound caused by
    closure of semilunar valves during relaxation of ventricles
  12. coronary circulation
    • blood supplies oxygen & nutrients to myocardium
    • flows through R & L coronary arteries
  13. cardiac cycle
    • avp. 72 bpm
    • ab. 0.8 seconds long
  14. stroke volume
    volume of blood EJECTED from 1 ventricle w/each beat
  15. cardiac output
    amt. of blood 1 ventricle can pump per minute
  16. chordae tendineae
    stringlike structure attach AV valves to wall of heart
  17. avg. cardiac output
    5L per minute @ rest
  18. conduction system components
    • intercalated disks
    • SA node
    • AV node
    • Purkinje fibers
    • AV bundle (bundle of His)
  19. cardiac cycle definition
    • each complete heartbeat
    • includes systole & diastole
  20. artificial pacemaker
    electrical device causes ventricular contractions at a rate fast enough to maintain an adequate circulation of blood
  21. arteries
    • carry blood away
    • oxygenated blood
  22. veins
    • carry blood toward
    • nonoxygenated blood
  23. capillaries
    carry blood from arterioles to venules
  24. hepatic portal circulation assists with
    homeostasis of blood glucose levels
  25. hepatic portal vein location
    btwn 2 capillary beds
  26. fetal circulation
    circulation b4 birth
  27. blood pressure definition
    push, or force, of blood in blood vessels
  28. blood pressure gradient
    causes blood to circulate
  29. liquids flow from
    area where pressure is higher to where it is lower
  30. measure blood pressure by
    mm of mercury
  31. factors that influence blood pressure
    • blood volume
    • strength of contractions
    • blood viscosity
    • resistance to blood flow
  32. blood viscosity
    how easily blood flows (thicker or thinner)
  33. blood volume
    amount of blood carrying out of the ventricles
  34. normal avg. arterial blood pressure
    • 120/80
    • systolic/diastolic
  35. central venous pressure
    venous blood pressure within R atrium
  36. venous return of blood to heart depends on 5 mechanisms
    • 1. strongly beating heart
    • 2. adequate arterial blood
    • 3. valves in veins
    • 4. pumping action of skeletal muscles when they contract
    • 5. changing pressures in chest cavit caused by breathing
  37. ____ _____ divides the heart into R & L sides btwn the atria
    interatrial septum
  38. occlusion of a coronary artery
  39. repolarization
    begins just before the relaxation phase of cardiac muscle activity on an ECG
  40. example of a semilunar valve
  41. which part of the heat supplies oxygen to heart muscle
    coronary arteries
  42. the aorta carries blood OUT of the
    L ventricle
  43. superior vena cava RETURNS blood to the
    R atrium
  44. which vessel's walls are made up entirely of endothelial cells
  45. _____ _____ is made up of smooth muscle
    tunica media
  46. blood RETURNS from lungs during pulmonary circulation via
    pulmonary veins
  47. foramen ovale serves fetal circulation by
    shunting blood from R atrium directly into L atrium
  48. structure used to connect the aorta & pulmonary artery in fetal circulation
    ductus arteriosus
  49. which of the following is NOT an artery?

    D. inferior vena cava
  50. what has valves to assist blood flow
  51. if the blood pressure in the arteries bcm equal to the avg. pressure in the arterioles, circulation would _____
  52. massive hemorrhage _____ blood pressure
  53. stroke is often the result of ____ blood pressure
  54. heart sounds are most easily heard by placing a stethoscope
    directly over the apex
  55. the valve located btwn the R atrium & the ventricle
  56. blood rick in oxygen returns from lungs & enters L atrium of heart through the
    pulmonary veins
  57. heart block is treated by
    implanting an artificial pacemaker
  58. outermost layer of arteries & veins
    tunica externa
  59. blood pressure gradient is
    vitally involved in keeping the blood flowing
  60. arteries carry blood ____ from heart & ____ capillaries
    • away
    • toward
  61. aorta carries blood out of
    L ventricle
  62. vena cavae returns blood to the
    R atrium
  63. capillary composition
    • 1 layer of flat endothelial cells in membrane
    • allows substances to pass quickly
  64. by constricting/ dialating, arterioles maintain
    arterial blood pressure @ a normal level
  65. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  66. peripheral resistance
    any force that acts against the flow of blood
  67. vasomotor mechanism
    adjustment of a muscle tension in vessel walls to control blood pressure & blood flow
Card Set
HSII Ch. 12
cardiovascular system