Electrolyte Disorders

  1. Hyponatremia Symptoms
    Weakness, lassitude, apathy, headache, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia.
  2. Hypernatremia Symptoms
    Tremulousness, irritability, ataxia, confusion, seizures, coma
  3. Hypochloremia Symptoms
    Metabolic alkalosis, muscle spasm, coma (severe)
  4. Hyperchloremia Symptoms
  5. Hypokalemia Symptoms
    Muscle weakness, paralysis, ECG abnormalities, supraventricular arrhythmias, circulatory failure, cardiac arrest
  6. Hyperkalemia Symptoms
    ECG changes, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest
  7. Hypocalcemia Symptoms
    Hyperactive tendon reflexes, muscle twitching, spasms, abdominal cramps, ECG changes, convulsions (rare)
  8. Hypercalcemia Symptoms
    Fatigue, depression, muscle weakness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation
  9. Hypomagnesemia Symptoms
    Muscle weakness, irritability, tetany, ECG changes, arrhythmias, delirium, convulsions
  10. Hypermagnesemia Symptoms
    ECG changes (along with Hyperkalemia, cardiac arrest, respiratory muscle paralysis)
  11. Hypophosphatemia Symptoms
    Diaphragmatic weakness
  12. Hyperphosphatemia Symptoms
  13. Hyponatremia Causes
    GI loss, sweating, fever, diuretics, ascites, congestive heart failure, kidney failure
  14. Hypernatremia Causes
    Net sodium gain, net water loss, increased aldosterone, steriod therapy
  15. Hypochloremia Causes
    GI loss, diuretics
  16. Hyperchloremia Causes
    Dehydration, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis
  17. Hypokalemia Causes
    Diuretics, steroid therapy, renal tubular disease, vomiting, diarrhea, malnutrition, trauma
  18. Hyperkalemia Causes
    Chronic renal disease, hemorrhage, tissue necrosis, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, ACE inhibitors, cyclosporine, K-sparing diuretics
  19. Hypocalcemia Causes
    Hyperparathyroidism, pancreatitis, renal failure, trauma
  20. Hypercalcemia Causes
    Hyperthyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism, mestastatic bone cancer, sarcoidosis
  21. Hypomagnesemia Causes
    Inadequate intake/inpaired absorption of MG++, pancreatitis, alcoholism
  22. Hypermagnesemia Cause
    Dehydration, renal insufficiency, tissue trauma, lupus erythematosus
  23. Hypophosphatemia Causes
    Starvation, malabsorption, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
  24. Hyperphosphatemia Causes
    Endocrine disorders, acromegaly, chronic renal insufficiency, acute renal failure, tissue trauma
Card Set
Electrolyte Disorders
RT 112 Study Cards