Bmsc 200 Carbs

  1. Oligosaccharides
    3 –20 monosaccharides
  2. Polysaccharides
    more than 20 monosaccharide residues
  3. Glycoconjugates
    Carbs linked to proteins or lipids
  4. Aldoses
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    • Corbonyl is at the end of the molecule
  5. Ketoses
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    • Carbonyl is in the middle of the sugar
  6. D formation of Carbs
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    • Non 'H' groups make a "D" shape
  7. L Formation of Carbs
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    • Non 'H' Groups make reverse "D" shape
  8. Epimers
    Two sugars that differ at only one of several chiral centers
  9. D-Glyceraldehyde Structure
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  10. D-Ribose Structure
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  11. D-Glucose Structure
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  12. D-Galactose Structure
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  13. D-Fructose Structure
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  14. Dihydroxyacetone Structure
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    • No stereoisomers
  15. Anomeric carbon
    • -the Carbon that becomes Chiral through cyclation of a sugar
    • -the carbon that is double bonded to  oxygen in chain form
    • -In aldos it is C1
    • -In Ketos it is C2
  16. Hemiacetal
    • When an alcohol(cn-1) attacks the anomeric carbon (c1) in cyclation  of an aldehyde resulting in a chiral carbon.
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  17. Hemiketal
    • When alcohol(cn-1) attacks the anomeric carbon(c2) in cyclation  of a Ketone resulting in a chiral carbon
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  18. Acetal
    • When a hemiacetals hydroxyl group becomes protonated by an alcohol and is lost as water (when monosach's bond)
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  19. Ketal
    When a hemiketals hydroxyl is protonated by an alcohol and lost as water  (when monosach's bond)

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  20. Pyran Ring
    Six-memberedsugar ring is a “pyranose”
  21. Furan Ring
    Five-membered sugar ring is a “furanose”
  22. Image Upload 30 configuration of a carb
    • Anomeric carbons hydroxyl is below
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  23. β Configuration of a carb
    • Anomeric carbons hydroxyl is above
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  24. Hexose derivitive
    • Hexoses with additional functional groups attached
    • Hexose- six carbon monosaccharide
  25. What does the reduction of a linear monosaccharides aldehyde to a carboxyl  (by mild oxidizing agents like iron and copper) allow?
    quantifications of sugars present in blood or urine
  26. Glycosidic bond
    • -primary structural linkage in all polymers of monosaccharides
    • -O-glycosidic bonds through oxygen
    • -N-glycosidic bonds through nitrogen
  27. Reducing end of a monosaccaride
    The end of the chain with a free anomeric carbon
  28. Naming of disaccharides
    • 1st sugar ends in syl
    • 2nd sugar ends in ose
    • pyranose if 6 carbon sugar
    • furanose if 5 carbon sugar
    • brackets in middle contain (carbon # of sugar 1Image Upload 36carbon # of sugar 2)
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  29. Homopolysaccharides
    polymers containing a single type of monosaccharide
  30. Heteropolysaccharides
    • -polymers containing more than one type of monosaccharide
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  31. starch
    • -Energy storage Polysaccharide of Plants and fungi
    • -mixture of amylose (unbranched) and amylopectin (branched)
  32. glycogen
    • -Energy storage Polysaccharide for animals
    • -Found in liver and skeletal muscle
  33. Amylose
    • a linear polymer ofglucose residues through α(1-4) bonds
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  34. amylopectin
    • •Consists mainly of α(1-4) linked glucose residues but with α(1-6) branch points every 24-30 residues
    • •α(1-4) cut by amylase, α(1-6) branch points removed by debranching enzyme
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  35. Glycogen
    • •Structurally identical to amylopectin with higher frequency of branch points (every 10 residues).
    • •Mobilized in times of need by glycogen phosphorylase which sequential cleaves glucose residues from branch end points.
    • •Greater frequency of branching allows for rapid mobilization.
  36. Cellulose
    • -Structural Polysaccharides
    • -the primary component of plant cell walls (fiber).
    • -Accounts for over half of the carbon in the biosphere
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    • •Linear arrangement of β(1-4) glycosidic residues.-cannot be cut by amylase
  37. Chitin
    • -Structural Polysaccharides
    • -the primary structural component of the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans
    • -Repeating units of b-(1-4)GlcNAc residues
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  38. Proteoglycans
    • -glycosaminoglycan-protein complexes
    • -Function in extracellular space to form a gel-like matrix for lubrication and cushioning
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  39. Glycosaminoglycans function
    • -negatively charged chains repel each other and attract water
    • -when compressed water is pushed out slowly cushioning the compression
    • -when water is gone negative charges are exposed and repel each other further resisting compression
  40. Glycosaminoglycans structure
    • -unbranched heteroglycans of repeating disaccharides (many sulfated hydroxyl and amino groups)
    • -Disaccharide components include:
    • (1) amino sugar (D-galactosamine or D-glucosamine),
    • (2)  an alduronic acid
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Card Set
Bmsc 200 Carbs
Bmsc 200 Carbs