survey research #1-4
Overall goal of survey and questionnaire design is...
to have reliable and valid measure of a contruct
The basics of questionaire contruction (4)
-several items are generally better than one
*many ways to assess the same thing
-vary the wording of items to elicit both high and low responses
-have a reason for each item
-consider the order of items
(questionaire contruction) Focus on usability
-always include instructions
*what do you want participant to do?
--have an organized layout
--alwways label your scale points
*ideally label them all
General principles of question contruction (5)
*to what extet do you approve or dissaprove how the president handles the problems
-avoid double barreled questions
*to what extent do you approve or disaprove of the President and his efforts to fix the economy?
-take care to ensure that all items measure what you think they are measuring
-avoid leading questions
*how positive do you feel....
-give respondents appropriate options and context for a question
(survey question formats) Closed-ended items
-specific rating scale or highly structured recall prompts
-most reliable for concrete behaviors
-specific contructs can be assessed in several ways
*direct attitude assessment
**using a scale from 1-7
- behavioral indicators
**on average how much do you...this a week?
(types of closed ended items) Fixed alternatives (2)
-format can limit information that can be obtained
: do you believe....is?
a) good for society
b) bad for society
*consider adding "other and specified"
**limits the response from the individual, dont get in depth analysis of the participant
- it can be used to assess behavioral frequencies if more specific time intervals are added
-most common item type in psychological questionaire research
-initially they were used as agree and disagree scales
*they now got varied
: my mohther:
: negative , 4: OK, 3 Positive
(types of closed ended item) Semantic differential
-ratings of bipolar adjectives in realtion to a particular domain
*usually on a 7-point scale
: rate your psych 242
easy _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Hard
Advantages of closed ended-items
-very specific and concrete
*know what participant is responding to
-easy to quantify and use statisticalluy
- can be tested for reliability
Limitations of closed ended items
-often brief, simply worded, potentially superficial
-issues or contructs are imposed on participants
*may not exactly reflect their belifs
(types of survey formats) Open ended items
-general textual response: more sensitive to respondent
example: what is the most important social issue facing the country today?
-more difficult to interpret: analyze as qualitative data
2 ways open-ended items can be quantified
-frequency counts of citations or statements
- lnkages analysis of co-occuring statements
survey research #1-4