survey research #1-4

  1. Overall goal of survey and questionnaire design is...
    to have reliable and valid measure of a contruct
  2. The basics of questionaire contruction (4)
    • -several items are generally better than one
    • *many ways to assess the same thing

    -vary the wording of items to elicit both high and low responses

    -have a reason for each item

    -consider the order of items
  3. (questionaire contruction) Focus on usability
    • -always include instructions
    • *what do you want participant to do?

    --have an organized layout

    • --alwways label your scale points
    • *ideally label them all
  4. General principles of question contruction (5)
    • -avoid ambiguity
    • *to what extet do you approve or dissaprove how the president handles the problems
    • **not specific

    • -avoid double barreled questions
    • *to what extent do you approve or disaprove of the President and his efforts to fix the economy?

    -take care to ensure that all items measure what you think they are measuring

    • -avoid leading questions
    • *how positive do you feel....

    -give respondents appropriate options and context for a question
  5. (survey question formats) Closed-ended items
    -specific rating scale or highly structured recall prompts

    -most reliable for concrete behaviors

    • -specific contructs can be assessed in several ways
    • *direct attitude assessment
    • **using a scale from 1-7

    • - behavioral indicators
    • **on average how much do you...this a week?
  6. (types of closed ended items) Fixed alternatives (2)
    -format can limit information that can be obtained

    • example: do you
    • a) good for society
    • b) bad for society
    • *consider adding "other and specified"
    • **limits the response from the individual, dont get in depth analysis of the participant

    - it can be used to assess behavioral frequencies if more specific time intervals are added
  7. Likert-type scales
    -most common item type in psychological questionaire research

    • -initially they were used as agree and disagree scales
    • *they now got varied

    • example: my mohther: 
    • 5: negative , 4: OK, 3 Positive
  8. (types of closed ended item) Semantic differential
    • -ratings of bipolar adjectives in realtion to a particular domain
    • *usually on a 7-point scale

    • example: rate your psych 242
    • easy _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Hard
  9. Advantages of closed ended-items
    -Clear operationalization

    • -very specific and concrete
    • *know what participant is responding to

    -easy to quantify and use statisticalluy

    - can be tested for reliability
  10. Limitations of closed ended items
    -potential insensitivity

    -often brief, simply worded, potentially superficial

    • -issues or contructs are imposed on participants
    • *may not exactly reflect their belifs
  11. (types of survey formats) Open ended items
    -general textual response: more sensitive to respondent

    example: what is the most important social issue facing the country today?

    -more difficult to interpret: analyze as qualitative data
  12. 2 ways open-ended items can be quantified
    -frequency counts of citations or statements

    - lnkages analysis of co-occuring statements
Card Set
survey research #1-4
survey #1