1. Reduced levels of leptin in the brain or fewer brain leptin receptors may contribute to obesity.
  2. Individuals with anorexia nervosa lose all interest in food.
  3. The overeating noted in patients such as Carrie reflects
    defective brain satiety mechanisms.
  4. Which of the following drugs may be useful for the treatment of anorexia nervosa?
    No drug is available for the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
  5. Insulin in the blood appears to be interpreted by the brain as
    a satiety signal.
  6. The ob mouse becomes obese because it lacks the gene that normally produces
  7. All of the following statements about cholecystokinin (CCK) are true EXCEPT that
  8. Which of the following is true of leptin?
    Few cases of human obesity are related to a mutation of the gene for leptin and leptin receptors.
  9. In the experiment by Tordoff and Friedman (1988), reduced eating in a hungry rat was noted after
    infusions of glucose or fructose into the hepatic portal vein.
  10. Cholecystokinin inhibits food intake, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake.
  11. Which of the following is true of ghrelin?
    Infusion of ghrelin into the brain stimulates food intake.
  12. Which of the following is not considered to be a factor that contributes to obesity?
    the fact that we require more calories as we get older
  13. Which pair below represents orexigens?
    NPY and AGRP
  14. Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus produce overeating and obesity in laboratory animals.
  15. Electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus ________ whereas electrical stimulation ________.
    produce overeating to obesity; inhibits eating
  16. CART and α-MSH are orexigenic peptides.
  17. Fluoxetine is useful for the treatment of bulimia, but not anorexia nervosa.
  18. A key aspect of anorexia nervosa is
    an intense fear of obesity.
  19. ________ is secreted by pancreatic cells in response to ________.
    Glucagon; a fall in blood glucose
  20. The carbohydrate reservoir in the liver is primarily reserved for
    the central nervous system.
  21. Which pair below is classed as anorexigens?
    CART and α-MSH
  22. Which of the following would be a useful treatment for obesity?
    a drug that activates leptin, CCK, CART, or MC4 receptors
  23. A troubling side effect of the RYGB gastric procedure in the treatment of obesity is an elevated risk for death.
  24. Experiments by Deutsch
    and colleagues allowed rats to eat until they were satiated and then
    withdrew a few milliliters of diet from their stomach using an implanted
    catheter. After the withdrawal, the rats
    ate enough food to replace that withdrawn from the stomach.
  25. Drugs such as fenfluramine that were used to treat obesity exerted an inhibition of appetite by
  26. The detectors for fatty acids are located within the
  27. Detectors for glucose are located within the
  28. NPY stimulates eating.
  29. Which of the following helps to explain why it is a bad idea to skip breakfast?
    The liver holds a limited amount of glucose for use by the brain, and this supply can be depleted after an overnight fast.
  30. A key effect of ghrelin that results in the stimulation of eating is to
    activate NPY neurons within the hypothalamus.
  31. The effects of NPY on eating are due to activation of ________ localized within the ________.
    MCH neurons; lateral hypothalamus
  32. ________ is the key factor that controls the absorptive phase of metabolism.
  33. Our short-term fuel reservoir is contained in cells located within the
    liver and muscles.
  34. The obsession with food noted in anorexia may be related to
    elevated levels of NPY in the brain.
  35. Ghrelin is a neuropeptide secreted from the ________ that functions to ________.
    stomach; initiate eating
  36. Mice that lack insulin receptors in the ________ are prone to ________.
    brain; develop obesity
  37. The distinction between bulimia and anorexia nervosa is that
    anorexia nervosa involves weight loss, while bulimia involves binging.
  38. Which of the following strongly suggests that the actions of ghrelin on food intake involve NPY?
  39. A key effect of leptin that results in the inhibition of eating is to
    inactivate receptors that control the release of hypothalamic NPY and AGRP.
  40. Match up the correct behavior with its antecedent condition.
    insulin; eating
  41. Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus
    produces eating and drinking.
  42. Administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist ________ may be useful in the treatment of ________.
    rimonabant; obesity
  43. The primary physiological signal for hunger is likely a decrease in glucose or fatty acid levels in the blood.
  44. The incidence of anorexia nervosa is ________, while that of bulimia is ________.
    0.5–2.0 percent; 1–3 percent
  45. The ability of leptin to
    inhibit eating can be viewed as a dual action in the brain that involves
    the activation of ________ and the inhibition of ________.
    CART/α-MSH neurons; NPY/AGRP neurons
  46. Which of the following would be useful for the treatment of poor appetite in a cancer patient?
    an endocannabinoid agonist
  47. Which terms are synonymous?
    orexins; hypocretins
  48. Which body cell does NOT require insulin in order to transport glucose across the membrane?
    liver cells
  49. Which situation below would be expected to produce the largest degree of stomach fullness?
    distension of the stomach by an inflatable bag, in combination with infusion of nutrients directly into the duodenum
  50. Long-term energy stores consist of triglycerides stored in adipose tissues.
  51. Insulin may serve as a satiety signal in brain.
  52. Cannabinoid agonists stimulate eating.
  53. Eating is initiated by secretion of ________ from the ________.
    ghrelin; stomach
  54. The MC-4R receptor is activated by ________ and inhibited by ________.
    α-MSH; agouti-related protein
  55. A key factor for the success of the RYGB procedure for the treatment of obesity is that
    it disrupts the secretion of ghrelin.
  56. Which of the following is used by the text author to explain why people exhibit differences in metabolic efficiency?
    Metabolic efficiency is advantageous for surviving in an environment where calories are hard to obtain.
  57. Which pair of peptides contained within the lateral hypothalamus is thought to increase eating?
    orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone
  58. Our long-term fuel reservoir is filled with ________ and is located in ________.
    triglycerides; fat cells
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