Infusion of ghrelin into the brain stimulates food intake.
Which of the following is not considered to be a factor that contributes to obesity?
the fact that we require more calories as we get older
Which pair below represents orexigens?
NPY and AGRP
Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus produce overeating and obesity in laboratory animals.
Electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus ________ whereas electrical stimulation ________.
produce overeating to obesity; inhibits eating
CART and α-MSH are orexigenic peptides.
Fluoxetine is useful for the treatment of bulimia, but not anorexia nervosa.
A key aspect of anorexia nervosa is
an intense fear of obesity.
________ is secreted by pancreatic cells in response to ________.
Glucagon; a fall in blood glucose
The carbohydrate reservoir in the liver is primarily reserved for
the central nervous system.
Which pair below is classed as anorexigens?
CART and α-MSH
Which of the following would be a useful treatment for obesity?
a drug that activates leptin, CCK, CART, or MC4 receptors
A troubling side effect of the RYGB gastric procedure in the treatment of obesity is an elevated risk for death.
Experiments by Deutsch
and colleagues allowed rats to eat until they were satiated and then
withdrew a few milliliters of diet from their stomach using an implanted
catheter. After the withdrawal, the rats
ate enough food to replace that withdrawn from the stomach.
Drugs such as fenfluramine that were used to treat obesity exerted an inhibition of appetite by
The detectors for fatty acids are located within the
Detectors for glucose are located within the
NPY stimulates eating.
Which of the following helps to explain why it is a bad idea to skip breakfast?
The liver holds a limited amount of glucose for use by the brain, and this supply can be depleted after an overnight fast.
A key effect of ghrelin that results in the stimulation of eating is to
activate NPY neurons within the hypothalamus.
The effects of NPY on eating are due to activation of ________ localized within the ________.
MCH neurons; lateral hypothalamus
________ is the key factor that controls the absorptive phase of metabolism.
Our short-term fuel reservoir is contained in cells located within the
liver and muscles.
The obsession with food noted in anorexia may be related to
elevated levels of NPY in the brain.
Ghrelin is a neuropeptide secreted from the ________ that functions to ________.
stomach; initiate eating
Mice that lack insulin receptors in the ________ are prone to ________.
brain; develop obesity
The distinction between bulimia and anorexia nervosa is that
anorexia nervosa involves weight loss, while bulimia involves binging.
Which of the following strongly suggests that the actions of ghrelin on food intake involve NPY?
A key effect of leptin that results in the inhibition of eating is to
inactivate receptors that control the release of hypothalamic NPY and AGRP.
Match up the correct behavior with its antecedent condition.
Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus
produces eating and drinking.
Administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist ________ may be useful in the treatment of ________.
The primary physiological signal for hunger is likely a decrease in glucose or fatty acid levels in the blood.
The incidence of anorexia nervosa is ________, while that of bulimia is ________.
0.5–2.0 percent; 1–3 percent
The ability of leptin to
inhibit eating can be viewed as a dual action in the brain that involves
the activation of ________ and the inhibition of ________.
CART/α-MSH neurons; NPY/AGRP neurons
Which of the following would be useful for the treatment of poor appetite in a cancer patient?
an endocannabinoid agonist
Which terms are synonymous?
Which body cell does NOT require insulin in order to transport glucose across the membrane?
Which situation below would be expected to produce the largest degree of stomach fullness?
distension of the stomach by an inflatable bag, in combination with infusion of nutrients directly into the duodenum
Long-term energy stores consist of triglycerides stored in adipose tissues.
Insulin may serve as a satiety signal in brain.
Cannabinoid agonists stimulate eating.
Eating is initiated by secretion of ________ from the ________.
The MC-4R receptor is activated by ________ and inhibited by ________.
α-MSH; agouti-related protein
A key factor for the success of the RYGB procedure for the treatment of obesity is that
it disrupts the secretion of ghrelin.
Which of the following is used by the text author to explain why people exhibit differences in metabolic efficiency?
Metabolic efficiency is advantageous for surviving in an environment where calories are hard to obtain.
Which pair of peptides contained within the lateral hypothalamus is thought to increase eating?
orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone
Our long-term fuel reservoir is filled with ________ and is located in ________.