Anatomy & Phys

  1. What happens to kidney functions if blood pressure drops too much?
    Kidney secretes renin (enzyme that activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway). Increased renin levels leads to increased blood pressure
  2. What can happen if your long-term blood pressure stays too high?
    Hypertension may worsten and could lead to other heart disease which may lead to death
  3. Function of Eosinophils
    Phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes & are effective against certain parasitic worms; combat effects of histamine in allergic reactions
  4. Function of Neutrophils
    Phagocytosis, destruction of bacteria & dispose of dead matter
  5. Function of Basophils
    Releases heparin, histamine, & serotonin in allergic reactions
  6. Function of Monocytes
  7. Function of Lymphocytes
    Help combat infection & provide protection against some diseases
  8. Function of Platelets
    Help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels; promote blood clotting
  9. What are Macrophages?
    Enlarged & differentiated monocytes (largest type of WBC, characterized by agranular cytoplasm)
  10. What are Mast Cells?
    Cell found in areolar connective tissue that releases histamine
  11. Functions of B- & T- lymphocytes. Which of these attack virus infected cells?
    B-lymphocytes - effective in destroying bacteria & inactivating their toxins

    T-lymphocytes - attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells & some bacteria; also responsible for transfusion reactions, allergies, & rejection of transplanted organs
  12. Why is albumen important?
    Transports proteins for several steroid hormones & fatty acids
  13. What do antibodies and fibrinogen do?
    Antibodies - binds to antigen & inactivates the bacteria/virus

    Fibrinogen - involved in blood clotting
  14. Function of Histamine
    Increases permeability of blood vessels & constriction of bronchioles
  15. Intrinsic Pathway VS Extrinsic Pathway
    Intrinsic - activates Factor XII then Factor X; activated by blood trauma

    Extrinsic - activates Factor X; activated by tissue trauma
  16. What are clotting fibers?
    Fibrin threads that contribute to clotting
  17. Why is Calcium important in the formation of clotting?
    Activates clotting factors
  18. What are some unique features of cardiac muscles?
    Intercalated discs - contain desmosomes, which hold fibers together

    Gap junctions - allow muscle action potentials to conduct from one muscle fiber to another
  19. Where is the pacemaker located?
    Autorhythmic fibers
  20. What is the job of the AV node?
    Acts as the site where action potentials can conduct from the atria to ventricles which then goes to the right & left bundle branches
  21. How does the refractory period of cardiac muscle compare to that of skeletal muscle?
    Tetanus (maintained contraction) cannot occur in cardiac muscle
  22. Why is it a good deal that the refractory period is so much longer—what would happen if it weren’t’?
    If tetanus occurred then blood flow would cease
  23. What goes on during the P-QRS-T segments?
    P segment - atrial depolarization

    QRS segment - rapid ventricular depolarization

    T segment - ventricular repolarization
  24. If you have a large P wave, for what can that be diagnostic?
    Enlarged atrium
  25. What is the significance of a large R wave? A large Q wave?
    Enlarged ventricles; Myocardial infarction
  26. What are possible inputs to the cardiovascular center?
    Possible inputs - cerebral cortex, limbic system, & hypothalamus (from higher brain) proprioceptors, chemoreceptors & baroreceptors (from sensory receptors)
  27. How is the output modified so as to increase or decrease heart rate?
    Output modification - age, gender, physical fitness & body temperature
  28. What are factors that affect peripheral resistance?
    An increase in vasoconstriction
  29. What does polycythemia mean?
    Disorder in which hypertension, thrombosis, & hemorrhage can occur
  30. Why are athletes who use EPO at risk of heart attack & stroke?
    Too much RBC production, which leads to clogging capillaries
  31. Why does obesity increase peripheral resistance?
    Obesity causes vasoconstriction, which also affects peripheral resistance
  32. What does venoconstriction mean?
    An increase in blood volume back to the heart
  33. Which is more important in terms of raising blood pressure: venoconstriction or arterial constriction?
    Arterial constriction
  34. Regulation of blood pressure (short-term)
    When blood pressure decreases, heart increases or when blood pressure increases, heart rate decreases
  35. Blood pressure regulation (long-term)
    ADH, angiotensin II, & aldosterone increases blood pressure; atrial natriuretic peptide decreases blood pressure
  36. What does hypovolemic mean?
    Low volume of blood
  37. How does blood to the brain change during exercise?
    Blood gets distributed more to the muscles
  38. How does cardiac output change with exercise?
    Cardiac output increases to supply tissues with more oxygen & nutrients & heart rate increases
  39. How are we able to shut down blood to certain organs during exercise?
    Pre-capillary sphincters regulate blood flow
  40. What is one of the important jobs of the lymphatic system?
    Takes in excess fluid from arteries & veins & returns back to circulating system
  41. What hormones are involved in regulating the amount of fluid in the blood so as to maintain blood pressure within limits?
    ADH & aldosterone
  42. Where do we find angiotensin-converting enzyme being made?
  43. Where is renin made?
  44. Function of renin
    Along with angiotensin converting enzyme, act on their substrates to produce the active hormone angiotensin II, which raises blood pressure
  45. Function of Aldosterone
    Retains Na & H2O which increases blood pressure
  46. Function of ADH
    Retains H20 which increases blood volume, increases blood pressure
  47. Function of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
    Opposite of aldosterone; doesn’t retain Na & H2O which decreases blood pressure
  48. Function of Angriotensin II
    Arterial constriction increases blood pressure; acts on adrenal cortex which leads to aldosterone
  49. Where is Angriotensin II made?
    Red blood cells & vascular beds of some tissues
  50. Where would you find Angiotensin in the body?
Card Set
Anatomy & Phys
Cardiovascular System